Advertisement

Carbon Offset Utilizing Coastal Waters: Yokohama Blue Carbon Project

  • Masato Nobutoki
  • Satoru Yoshihara
  • Tomohiro Kuwae
Chapter

Abstract

Although the coastal port city of Yokohama has carried out a campaign to improve conditions for marine ecosystems, the nation of Japan has not yet utilized coastal waters as an option for global warming countermeasures. Based on the concept of blue carbon ecosystems advocated by the United Nations Environment Programme, since 2011 Yokohama City has been conducting a social experiment called the Yokohama Blue Carbon Project, which serves to counter climate change and includes a novel carbon offset campaign. Yokohama City, which was chosen by the Japanese government as an environmental Future City in countering global warming, is aiming to transition from being a port city to a marine environmental city. In this chapter, we describe the successes and challenges of the Yokohama Blue Carbon Project and we report on the project’s involvement in the World Triathlon Series held in Yokohama as an example of a carbon offset credit framework utilizing coastal waters.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Yokohama Municipal Fishery Cooperative, Yokohama Hakkeijima Inc., Yokohama Seaside Triathlon Convention Executive Committee, Yokohama City University, Yokohama Blue Carbon Review Committee, and local wind surfers for their cooperation in the Yokohama Blue Carbon Project.

References

  1. Abo K, Sugimatsu K, Hori M et al (2018) Quantifying the fate of captured carbon: from seagrass meadow to deep sea. In: Kuwae T, Hori M (eds) Blue carbon in shallow coastal ecosystems: carbon dynamics, policy, and implementation. Springer, Singapore, pp 251–271Google Scholar
  2. Embodied Energy and Emission Intensity Data for Japan Using Input-Output Tables (2005) http://www.cger.nies.go.jp/publications/report/d031/eng/index_e.htm. Accessed 17 June 2018
  3. Endo H, Nakai K (2012) Empirical study of the efficiency of the system of large-scale renovation cultivation of seaweed. Iwate Prefectural Fisheries Technology and Development Center Annual Report. http://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/3030185488. Accessed 17 June 2018
  4. Hasegawa K, Suzuki S (2005) Work analysis of harvesting and salt-preserved wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) processing. Technical report of National Research Institute of Fisheries Engineering, vol 27, pp 61–80Google Scholar
  5. Hori M, Bayne CJ, Kuwae T, Hori M (2018) Blue carbon: characteristics of the ocean’s sequestration and storage ability of carbon dioxide. In: Kuwae T, Hori M (eds) Blue carbon in shallow coastal ecosystems: carbon dynamics, policy, and implementation. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  6. Japan Construction Machinery and Construction Association (2013) Calculation table of loss on construction machinery. http://jcmanet.or.jp/tosho/2013/1305101.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2018
  7. Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry (2010) http://www.jemai.or.jp/english/. Accessed 17 June 2018
  8. Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry (2012) https://www.cfp-japan.jp/english/. Accessed 17 June 2018
  9. Japan Food Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (2012) General catalogues for food machinery of Japan, 174 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Japanese Fisheries Research Agency (2012) Report for the project of enhancement of countermeasures against global warming: evaluation of carbon sink and development of enhancement technology for CO2 in seagrass meadows, macroalgal beds, and tidal flats. http://www.maff.go.jp/j/budget/yosan_kansi/sikkou/tokutei_keihi/seika_h24/suisan_ippan/pdf/60100434_00.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2018
  11. Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2013) J-Credit scheme. https://japancredit.go.jp/english/. Accessed 17 June 2018
  12. Japanese Ministry of the Environment (2011) Guideline for calculation method of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from target activity of carbon offset, Ver. 2.0. https://www.env.go.jp/press/files/jp/17125.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2018
  13. Japanese Ministry of the Environment (2013) Carbon offset third party certification criteria, Ver. 2.0. https://www.env.go.jp/earth/ondanka/mechanism/carbon_offset/guideline/cc-tpc.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2018
  14. Japanese Ministry of the Environment (2018) https://www.env.go.jp/water/heisa/satoumi/en/index_e.html. Accessed 17 June 2018
  15. Kagoshima Prefectural Fisheries Technology and Development Center (2000) http://kagoshima.suigi.jp/ayumi/. Accessed 17 June 2018
  16. Kawabata T, Kayata K, Inui M, Hirayama K (1993) An estimation of net production rate of eelgrass Zostera marina at Yanai Bay during spring and summer. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 59(3):455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuwae T, Hori M (2018) The future of blue carbon: addressing global environmental issues. In: Kuwae T, Hori M (eds) Blue carbon in shallow coastal ecosystems: carbon dynamics, policy, and implementation. Springer, Singapore, pp 347–373Google Scholar
  18. Miyajima T, Hamagichi M (2018) Carbon sequestration in sediment as an ecosystem function of seagrass meadows. In: Kuwae T, Hori M (eds) Blue carbon in shallow coastal ecosystems: carbon dynamics, policy, and implementation. Springer, Singapore, pp 33–71Google Scholar
  19. Nelleman C, Corcoran E, Duarte CM, et al (2009) Blue Carbon: a rapid response assessment. United Nations Environmental Programme, GRID-Arendal, Birkeland Trykkeri AS, BirkelandGoogle Scholar
  20. Terawaki T, Tamaki H, Nishimura S, Yoshikawa K, Yoshida G (2002) Total amount of carbon and nitrogen in Zostera marina in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea. Jpn Bull Fish Res Agency 4:25–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masato Nobutoki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Satoru Yoshihara
    • 3
  • Tomohiro Kuwae
    • 4
  1. 1.Climate Change Policy Headquarters, City of YokohamaNaka-kuJapan
  2. 2.EX Research InstituteToshima-kuJapan
  3. 3.Technical Development DepartmentYachiyo Engineering Co., LtdTaito-kuJapan
  4. 4.Coastal and Estuarine Environment Research GroupPort and Airport Research InstituteYokosukaJapan

Personalised recommendations