Plant Responses to Arsenic Toxicity: Morphology and Physiology

  • Vibhuti Chandrakar
  • Neha Pandey
  • Sahu Keshavkant


Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring toxic metalloid, ubiquitously present in the environment. It enters the environment from both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic accumulates to different edible tissues and thereby enters into food chain. Arsenate and arsenite are two main phyto-available forms of As and are popularly reported to cause toxicity symptoms. Roots are foremost sites of As exposure, which slows down/inhibits extension and proliferation of it. From the roots, As gets translocated to the shoot and inhibits plant growth by slowing/arresting cell division/expansion, biomass accumulation, and plant reproductive capacity. Arsenite is more toxic than that of arsenate, since it has relatively high affinity for sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes thereby alters or inhibits their activities. It interferes with the respiration process by binding to thiol groups of some important respiratory enzymes. Morphological and physiological effects of As include reduced germination and growth, root cell plasmolysis, denodulation and discoloration, leaf wilting, necrosis of leaf tips and margins, reduction in number of leaves and leaf area, distortion of chloroplasts membranes, inhibition in the photosynthetic activity, suppression of starch hydrolyzing enzymes, etc. It is well reported that arsenate replaces phosphate of ATP molecule and hence disrupts cellular energy flow. Arsenic disturbs the uptake of water and nutrients through competition for transporters. Cellular membranes are prime targets of As-induced oxidative stress, as it causes disorganization of membrane structures thereby lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Membrane damage leads to imbalance in the nutrient uptake and disruption in the stomatal conductance and transpiration process. So, plants have evolved defensive mechanisms in order to protect cells from As-induced oxidative stress through enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Binding of As to thiol groups of antioxidant enzymes leads to suppression of defensive system of the plants. Hence, it is necessary to alleviate As from the contaminated areas where crops, vegetables, fruits, and pasturages have been cultivated, to protect the health of animals and human beings. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the assimilation, metabolism, and toxic effects of As in plants to develop various mitigation strategies against this dreadful contaminant.


Abiotic stress Environmental pollution Metalloid toxicity Plant growth 



The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, and Scientific and Engineering Research Board, New Delhi, for awarding INSPIRE fellowship [DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2013/791, dated 17.01.2014] to Vibhuti Chandrakar and National Post Doctoral Fellowship to Neha Pandey [PDF/2016/002813, dated 16.08.2017], respectively. Authors are also grateful to Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, and Chhattisgarh Council of Science and Technology, Raipur, for financial support through DST-FIST Scheme [2384/IFD/2014-15, dated 31.07.2014], National Center for Natural Resources [IR/SO/LU/0008/ 2011, dated 03.07.2012], and research project [2741/CCOST/MRP/2015, dated 24/03/2015], respectively.


  1. Abedin MJ, Meharg AA (2002) Relative toxicity of arsenite and arsenate on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Soil 243:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abercrombie JM, Halfhill MD, Ranjan P, Rao MR, Saxton AM, Yuan JS, Stewart CN (2008) Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to arsenate As(V) stress. BMC Plant Biol 8:87–101PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnihotri A, Seth CS (2016) Exogenously applied nitrate improves the photosynthetic performance and nitrogen metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Pusa Rohini) under arsenic (V) toxicity. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 22:341–349PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahsan N, Lee DG, Kim KH, Alam I, Lee SH, Lee KW, Lee H, Lee BH (2010) Analysis of arsenic stress induced differentially expressed proteins in rice leaves by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 78:224–231Google Scholar
  5. Anjum SA, Tanveer M, Hussain S, Shahzad B, Ashraf U, Fahad S, Hassan W, Jan S, Khan I, Saleem MF, Bajwa AA, Wang L, Mahmood A, Samad RA, Tung SA (2016) Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:11864–11875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armendariz AL, Talano MA, Villasuso AL, Travaglia C, Racagni GE, Reinoso H, Agostini E (2016) Arsenic stress induces changes in lipid signalling and evokes the stomata closure in soybean. Plant Physiol Biochem 103:45–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakhat HF, Zia Z, Fahad S, Abbas S, Hammad HM, Shahzad AN, Abbas F, Alharby H, Shahid M (2017) Arsenic uptake, accumulation and toxicity in rice plants: possible remedies for its detoxification: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:9142–9158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Begum MC, Islam MS, Islam M, Amin R, Parvez MS, Kabir AH (2016) Biochemical and molecular responses underlying differential arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol Biochem 104:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertagnolli BL, Hanson JB (1973) Functioning of the adenine nucleotide transporter in the arsenate uncoupling of corn mitochondria. Plant Physiol 52:431–435PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhattacharya S, Sarkar ND, Banerjee P, Banerjee S, Mukherjee S, Chattopadhyay D, Mukhopadhyay A (2012) Effects of As toxicity on germination, seedling growth and peroxidise activity in Cicer arietinum. Int J Agric Food Sci 2:131–137Google Scholar
  11. Chandrakar V, Dubey A, Keshavkant S (2016a) Modulation of antioxidant enzymes by salicylic acid in arsenic exposed Glycine max L. J Soil Sci Plant Nut 16:662–676Google Scholar
  12. Chandrakar V, Naithani SC, Keshavkant S (2016b) Arsenic-induced metabolic disturbances and their mitigation mechanisms in crop plants: a review. Biologia 71:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandrakar V, Yadu B, Meena RK, Dubey A, Keshavkant S (2017a) Arsenic-induced genotoxic responses and their amelioration by diphenylene iodonium, 24-epibrassinolide and proline in Glycine max L. Plant Physiol Biochem 112:74–86PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandrakar V, Parkhey S, Dubey A, Keshavkant S (2017b) Modulation in arsenic-induced lipid catabolism in Glycine max L. using proline, 24-epibrassinolide and diphenylene iodonium. Biologia 72:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandrakar V, Dubey A, Keshavkant S (2018) Modulation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and protein metabolism by diphenyleneiodonium, 24-epibrassinolide and proline in Glycine max L. Acta Bot Croat 77(1):51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandrashekhar AK, Chandrasekharam D, Farooq SH (2016) Contamination and mobilization of arsenic in the soil and groundwater and its influence on the irrigated crops, Manipur Valley, India. Environ Earth Sci 142:1–15Google Scholar
  17. Chao DY, Chen Y, Chen J, Shi S, Chen Z, Wang C, Danku JM, Zhao FJ, Salt DE (2014) Genome-wide Association Mapping identifies a new arsenate reductase enzyme critical for limiting arsenic accumulation in plants. PLoS Biol 12:e1002009. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen Y, Han YH, Cao Y, Zhu YG, Rathinasabapathi B, Lena QM (2017) Arsenic transport in rice and biological solutions to reduce arsenic risk from rice. Front Plant Sci 8:268. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chidambaram AA, Sundaramoorthy P, Murugan A, Ganesh KS, Baskaran L (2009) Chromium induced cytotoxicity in black gran (Vigna radiata L.). Iran J Health Sci Eng 6:7–22Google Scholar
  20. Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Tripathi P, Kumar A, Dave R, Mishra S, Singh R, Sharma D, Rai UN, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Adhikari B, Bag MK, Dhankher OP, Tuli R (2010) Arsenate exposure affects amino acids, mineral nutrient status and antioxidant in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Environ Sci Technol 44:9542–9549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farnese FS, Oliveira JA, Gusman GS, Leao GA, Silveira NM, Silva PM, Ribeiro C, Cambraia J (2014) Effects of adding nitroprusside on arsenic stressed response of Pistia stratiotes L. under hydroponic conditions. Int J Phytoremediation 16:123–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farnese FS, Oliveira JA, Paiva EAS, Menezes-Silva PE, da Silva AA, Campos FV, Ribeiro C (2017) The involvement of nitric oxide in integration of plant physiological and ultrastructural adjustments in response to arsenic. Front Plant Sci 8:516. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Farooq MA, Gill RA, Ali B, Wang J, Islam F, Ali S, Zhou W (2015) Oxidative injury and antioxidant enzymes regulation in arsenic-exposed seedlings of four Brassica napus L. cultivars. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:10699–10712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farooq MA, Islam F, Ali B, Najeeb U, Mao B, Gill RA, Yan G, Siddique KHM, Zhou W (2016a) Arsenic toxicity in plants: cellular and molecular mechanisms of its transport and metabolism. Environ Exp Bot 132:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farooq MA, Gill RA, Ali B, Wang J, Islam F, Ali S, Zhou W (2016b) Subcellular distribution, modulation of antioxidant and stress related genes response to arsenic in Brassica napus L. Ecotoxicology 25:350–366PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Farooq MA, Islam F, Yang C, Nawaz A, Athar H, Gill RA, Ali B, Song W, Zhou W (2017) Methyl jasmonate alleviates arsenic-induced oxidative damage and modulates the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in oilseed rape roots. Plant Growth Regul 84:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finnegan P, Chen W (2012) Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism. Front Physiol 3:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garg N, Singla P (2011) Arsenic toxicity in crop plants, physiological effects and tolerance mechanisms. Environ Chem Lett 9:303–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gautam N, Verma PK, Verma S, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Adhikari B, Chakrabarty D (2012) Genome-wide identification of rice class I metallothionein gene: tissue expression patterns and induction in response to heavy metal stress. Funct Integr Genom 12:635–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Geng CN, Zhu YG, Hu Y, Williams P, Meharg AA (2006) Arsenate causes differential acute toxicity to two P-deprived genotypes of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Soil 279:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gill S, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gomes MP, Carneiro MMLC, Nogueira COG, Soares AM, Garcia QS (2013) The system modulating ROS content in germinating seeds of two Brazilian savanna tree species exposed to As and Zn. Acta Physiol Plant 35:1011–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta P, Bhatnagar AK (2015) Spatial distribution of arsenic in different leaf tissues and its effect on structure and development of stomata and trichomes in mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Environ Exp Bot 109:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gusman GS, Oliveira JA, Farnese FS, Cambraia J (2013a) Arsenate and arsenite: the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth of lettuce plants. Acta Physiol Plant 35:1201–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gusman GS, Oliveira JA, Farnese FS, Cambraia J (2013b) Mineral nutrition and enzymatic adaptation induced by arsenate and arsenite exposure in lettuce plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 71:307–314PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Ismail GSM (2012) Protective role of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced damages in germinating mung bean seeds. Acta Physiol Plant 34:1303–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaim AS, Kaur I, Bhatnagar AK (2016) Impact of 24-Epibrassinolide on tolerance, accumulation, growth, photosynthesis, and biochemical parameters in arsenic stressed Cicer arietinum L. Agric Sci Res J 6:201–212Google Scholar
  38. Karam EA, Keramat B, Asrar Z, Mozafari H (2016) Triacontanol-induced changes in growth, oxidative defense system in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) under arsenic toxicity. Ind J Plant Physiol 21:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaur S, Singh HP, Batish DR, Negi A, Mahajan P, Rana S, Kohli RK (2012) As inhibits radicle emergence and elongation in Phaseolus aureus by altering starch-metabolizing enzymes vis-à-vis disruption of oxidative metabolism. Biol Trace Elem Res 146:360–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaya C, Sonmez O, Aydemir S, Dikilitas M (2013) Mitigation effects of glycinebetaine on oxidative stress and some key growth parameters of maize exposed to salt stress. Turk J Agric For 37:188–194Google Scholar
  41. Kazemi N, Khavari-Nejad RA, Fahimi H, Saadatmand S, Nejad-Sattari T (2010) Effects of exogenous salicylic acid and nitric oxide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves of Brassica napus L. under nickel stress. Sci Hort 126:402–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar A, Singh RP, Singh PK, Awasthi S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Tripathi RD (2014) Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Ecotoxicology 23:1153–1163PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumar D, Singh VP, Tripathi DK, Prasad SM, Chauhan DK (2015) Effect of arsenic on growth, arsenic uptake, distribution of nutrient elements and thiols in seedlings of Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb. Int J Phytoremediation 17:128–134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Lang I, Sassmann S, Schmidt B, Komis G (2014) Plasmolysis: loss of turgor and beyond. Plants 3:583–593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lazzarato L, Trebbi G, Pagnucco C, Franchin C, Torrigiani P, Betti L (2009) Exogenous spermidine, arsenic and β-aminobutyric acid modulate tobacco resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, and affect local and systemic glucosylsalicylic acid levels and arginine decarboxylase gene expression in tobacco leaves. J Plant Physiol 166:90–100PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Li WX, Chen TB, Huang ZC, Lei M, Liao XY (2006) Effect of arsenic on chloroplast ultrastructure and calcium distribution in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Chemosphere 62:803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li N, Wang J, Song WY (2016) Arsenic uptake and translocation in plants. Plant Cell Physiol 57:4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu Q, Hu C, Tan Q, Sun X, Su J, Liang Y (2008) Effects of As on As uptake, speciation, and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions. J Environ Sci 20:326–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lou LQ, Shi GL, Wu JH, Zhu S, Qian M, Wang HZ, Cai QS (2015) The influence of phosphorus on arsenic uptake/efflux and As toxicity to wheat roots in comparison with sulfur and silicon. J Plant Growth Regul 34:242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mahdieh S, Ghaderian SM, Karimi N (2013) Effect of arsenic on germination, photosynthesis and growth parameters of two winter wheat varieties in Iran. J Plant Nutr 6:651–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mallick S, Sinam G, Sinha S (2011) Study on arsenate tolerant and sensitive cultivars of Zea mays L.: differential detoxification mechanism and effect on nutrient status. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1316–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mascher R, Lippmann B, Holzinger S, Bergmann H (2002) Arsenate toxicity: effects on oxidative stress response molecules and enzymes in red clover plants. Plant Sci 163:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meadows R (2014) How plants control arsenic accumulation. PLoS Biol 12:e1002008. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Meharg AA, Hartley-Whitaker J (2002) Arsenic uptake and metabolism in arsenic resistant and non resistant plant species. New Phytol 154:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Milivojevic DB, Nikolic BR, Drinic G (2006) Effect of arsenic on phosphorus content in different organs and chlorophyll fluorescence in primary leaves of soybean. Biol Plant 50:149–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mirza N, Mahmood Q, Shah MM, Pervez A, Sultan S (2014) Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content. Sci World J 2014:1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miteva E, Merakchiyska M (2002) Response of chloroplasts and photosynthetic mechanism of bean plants to excess arsenic in soil. Bulg J Agric Sci 8:151–156Google Scholar
  58. Moore SA, Moennich DM, Gresser MJ (1983) Synthesis and hydrolysis of ADP-arsenate by beef heart sub mitochondrial particles. J Biol Chem 258:6266–6271PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Most P, Papenbrock J (2015) Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate. Molecules 20:1410–1423PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Mumthas S, Chidambaram AA, Sundaramoorthy P, Ganesh KS (2010) Effect of arsenic and manganese on root growth and cell division in root tip cells of green gram (Vigna radiata L.). Emir J Food Agric 22:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nath S, Panda P, Mishra S, Dey M, Choudhury S, Sahoo L, Panda SK (2014) Arsenic stress in rice: redox consequences and regulation by iron. Plant Physiol Biochem 80:203–210PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Norton GJ, Lou-Hing DE, Meharg AA, Price AH (2008) Rice-arsenate interaction in hydroponics: whole genome transcriptional analysis. J Exp Bot 59:2267–2276PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paivoke AEA, Simola LK (2001) Arsenate toxicity to Pisum sativum: mineral nutrients, chlorophyll content, and phytase activity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 49:111–121PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Panda SK, Upadhyay RK, Nath S (2010) Arsenic stress in plants. J Agron Crop Sci 196:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pandey C, Augustine R, Panthri M, Zia I, Bisht NC, Gupta M (2017) Arsenic affects the production of glucosinolate, thiol and phytochemical compounds: a comparison of two Brassica cultivars. Plant Physiol Biochem 111:144–154PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Pathare V, Srivastava S, Sonawane BV, Suprasanna P (2016) Arsenic stress affects the expression profile of genes of 14-3-3 proteins in the shoot of mycorrhiza colonized rice. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 22:515–522PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patra M, Bhoumik N, Bandopadhyay B, Sharma A (2004) Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 52:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pirselova B, Mistríková V, Libantová J, Moravčíková J, Matušíková I (2012) Study on metal-triggered callose deposition in roots of maize and soybean. Biologia 67:698–705Google Scholar
  69. Radabaugh TR, Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA, Aposhian HV (2002) Arsenate reductase II Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in the presence of dihydrolipoic acid is a route for reduction of arsenate to arsenite in mammalian systems. Chem Res Toxicol 15:692–698PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Rahman F, Naidu E (2009) The influence of arsenic speciation (AsIII & AsV) and concentration on the growth, uptake and translocation of arsenic in vegetable crops (silverbeet and amaranth): greenhouse study. Environ Geochem Health 31:115–124PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Rahman A, Mostofa MG, Alam MM, Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2015) Calcium mitigates arsenic toxicity in rice seedlings by reducing arsenic uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems and stress markers. Biomed Res 2015:340812. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rai A, Bhardwaj A, Misra P, Bag SK, Adhikari B, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D (2015) Comparative transcriptional profiling of contrasting rice genotypes shows expression differences during arsenic stress. Plant Genome 8:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reichard JF, Puga A (2010) Effects of arsenic exposure on DNA methylation and epigenetic gene regulation. Epigenomics 2:87–104PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Requejo R, Tena M (2005) Proteome analysis of maize roots reveals that oxidative stress is a main contributing factor to plant arsenic toxicity. Phytochemistry 66:1519–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosas-Castor JM, Guzman-Mar JL, Hernandez-Ramirez A, Garza-Gonzalez MT, Hinojosa-Reyes L (2014) Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays): a review. Sci Total Environ 488:176–187PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Roychowdhury T, Tokunaga H, Uchino T, Ando M (2005) Effect of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on agricultural land soil and plants in West Bengal, India. Chemosphere 58:799–810PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Rucinska-Sobkowiak R (2016) Water relations in plants subjected to heavy metal stresses. Acta Physiol Plant 38:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sanchez-Bermejo E, Castrillo G, del Llano B, Navarro C, Zarco-Fernandez S, Martinez-Herrera DJ (2014) Natural variation in arsenate tolerance identifies an arsenate reductase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Commun 5:4617. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Schneider J, Labory CR, Rangel WM, Alves E, Guilherme LR (2013) Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 262:1245–1258PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Shaibur MR, Kawai S (2011) Arsenic toxicity in Akitakomachi rice in presence of Fe3+-citrate. Adv Environ Biol 5:1411–1422Google Scholar
  81. Sharma I (2012) Arsenic induced oxidative stress in plants. Biologia 67:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shin H, Shin H-S, Dewbre GR, Harrison MJ (2004) Phosphate transport in Arabidopsis: Pht1;1 and Pht1;4 play a major role in phosphate acquisition from both low- and high-phosphate environments. Plant J 39:629–642PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siddiqui F, Tandon PK, Srivastava S (2015a) Analysis of arsenic induced physiological and biochemical responses in a medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 21:61–69PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Siddiqui F, Tandon PK, Srivastava S (2015b) Arsenite and arsenate impact the oxidative status and antioxidant responses in Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 21:453–458PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Signorelli S, Imparatta C, Rodríguez-Ruiz M, Borsani O, Corpas FJ, Monza J (2016) In vivo and in vitro approaches demonstrate proline is not directly involved in the protection against superoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrite. Funct Plant Biol 43:870–879Google Scholar
  86. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK, Arora K (2007) As induced root growth inhibition in mung bean is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation. Plant Growth Regul 53:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Singh PK, Indoliya Y, Chauhan AS, Singh SP, Singh AP, Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Chakrabarty D (2017a) Nitric oxide mediated transcriptional modulation enhances plant adaptive responses to arsenic stress. Sci Rep 7:3592–3605PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Singh AP, Dixit G, Kumar A, Misgra S, Kumar N, Dixit S, Singh PK, Dwivedi S, Trivedi PK, Pandey V, Dhankher OP, Norton GJ, Chakrabarty D, Tripathi RD (2017b) A protective role for nitric oxide and salicylic acid for arsenite phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol Biochem 115:163–173PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Srivastava S, Sharma YK (2013) Impact of arsenic toxicity on black gram and its amelioration using phosphate. ISRN Toxicol doi:org/
  90. Srivastava S, Srivastava AK, Singh B, Suprasanna P, D’souza SF (2013a) The effect of As on pigment composition and photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticillata. Biol Plant 57:385–389Google Scholar
  91. Srivastava S, Srivastava AK, Suprasanna P, D’Souza SF (2013b) Quantitative real-time expression profiling of aquaporins-isoforms and growth response of Brassica juncea under arsenite stress. Mol Biol Rep 40:2879–2886PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Stoeva N, Bineva T (2003) Oxidative changes and photosynthesis in oat plants grown in As-contaminated soil. Bulg J Plant Physiol 29:87–95Google Scholar
  93. Stoeva N, Berova M, Zlatev Z (2003) Physiological response of maize to arsenic contamination. Biol Plant 47:449–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stoeva N, Berova M, Zlatev Z (2005) Effect of arsenic on some physiological parameters in bean plants. Biol Plant 49:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sudhani HPK, García-murria MJ, Moreno J (2013) Reversible inhibition of CO2 fixation by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase through the synergic effect of arsenite and a monothiol. Plant Cell Environ 36:1160–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Talukdar D (2013) Arsenic induced changes in growth and antioxidant metabolism of Fenugreek. Russ J Plant Physiol 60:652–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Talukdar D (2014) Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversal by thiourea in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek.) genotype. Cent Eur J Exp Biol 3:13–18Google Scholar
  98. Tawfik DS, Viola RE (2011) Arsenate replacing phosphate: alternative life chemistries and ion promiscuity. Biochemistry 50:1128–1134PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Umar S, Gauba N, Anjum NA, Siddiqi TO (2013) Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6039–6049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Upadhyaya H, Shome S, Roy D, Bhattacharya MK (2014) Arsenic induced changes in growth and physiological responses in Vigna radiata seedling: effect of curcumin interaction. Am J Plant Sci 5:3609–3618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang S, Blumwald E (2014) Stress-induced chloroplast degradation in Arabidopsis is regulated via a process independent of autophagy and senescence-associated vacuoles. Plant Cell 26:4875–4888PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weng XY, Xu HX, Yang Y, Peng HH (2008) Water-water cycle involved in dissipation of excess photon energy in phosphorus deficient rice leaves. Biol Plant 52:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Xalxo R, Yadu B, Chakraborty P, Chandrakar V, Keshavkant S (2017) Modulation of nickel toxicity by glycinebetaine and aspirin in Pennisetum typhoideum. Acta Biol Szeg 61:163–171Google Scholar
  104. Yadu B, Chandrakar V, Keshavkant S (2016) Responses of plants towards fluoride: an overview of oxidative stress and defense mechanisms. Fluoride 49:293–302Google Scholar
  105. Yadu B, Chandrakar V, Keshavkant S (2017a) Glycinebetaine reduces oxidative injury and enhances fluoride stress tolerance via improving antioxidant enzymes, proline and genomic template stability in Cajanus cajan L. South Afr J Bot 111:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yadu S, Dewangan TL, Chandrakar V, Keshavkant S (2017b) Imperative roles of salicylic acid and nitric oxide in improving salinity tolerance in Pisum sativum L. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:43–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yuan L, Zhu S, Li S, Shu S, Sun J, Guo S (2014) 24-Epibrassinolide regulates carbohydrate metabolism and increases polyamine content in cucumber exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress. Acta Physiol Plant 36:2845–2852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zavaleta-Mancera HA, Ortega-Ramírez LG, Jiménez-García LF, Sánchez-Viveros G, Alarcón A (2016) Effect of arsenic on chloroplast ultrastructure in Azolla filliculoides Lam. Microsc Microanal 22:1206–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhao FJ, Ma JF, Meharg AA, McGrath SP (2009) Arsenic uptake and metabolism in plants. New Phytol 181:777–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhao FJ, McGrath SP, Meharg AA (2010) Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:535–559PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhu YG, Geng C, Tong Y, Smith SE, Smith FA (2006) Phosphate (Pi) and arsenate uptake by two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars and their doubled haploid lines. Ann Bot 98:631–636PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vibhuti Chandrakar
    • 1
  • Neha Pandey
    • 1
  • Sahu Keshavkant
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Studies in BiotechnologyPt. Ravishankar Shukla UniversityRaipurIndia
  2. 2.National Center for Natural ResourcesPt. Ravishankar Shukla UniversityRaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations