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Status of Arsenic Toxicity in the World

  • Mustafeez Mujtaba BabarEmail author
  • Aneela Tariq
Chapter

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is a major environmental contaminant that affects the plant, animal, and human life. It is obtained from the earth’s crust and finds its use in industrial, cosmetic, agricultural, and health sectors. Though due to the medical concerns, its use has decreased, yet it continues to be bioavailable in different forms. Released through geological and anthropogenic activities, it presents to be a major risk to the human population. The current chapter reviews the role of As as a potential environmental contaminant and its effect as a carcinogen and toxin to the humans. Various sources of introduction of As into the environment are then discussed. A comprehensive review of the geographical patterns of As occurrence in environmental samples has then been provided along with the interventional strategies that can be employed to decrease the effects of As toxicity.

Keywords

Arsenic toxicity Global perspective Geographical distribution Arsenicosis Arsenic poisoning 

Abbreviations

μg

Microgram

As

Arsenic

As (III)

Trivalent arsenic

As (V)

Pentavalent arsenic

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Ca

Calcium

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinases

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Co

Cobalt

Cr

Chromium

Cu

Copper

DEC

Department of Environment and Conservation

DMAsV

Dimethylarsinic acid

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EIL

Ecological Investigation Levels

Fe

Iron

GDP

Gross domestic product

JECFA

Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

kg

Kilogram

L

Liter

LOD

Limits of detection

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases

MCL

Maximum Contaminant Level

Mg

Magnesium

MSMAsV

Monosodium methanearsonate

P

Phosphorus

Pb

Lead

PC

Phytochelatin

ppb

Parts per billion

PTE

Potentially toxic elements

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

UAE

United Arab Emirates

USA

United States

WHO

World Health Organization

Zn

Zinc

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shifa College of Pharmaceutical SciencesShifa Tameer-e-Millat UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Allied Health SciencesShifa Tameer-e-Millat UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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