Potentials of Aquatic Plants and Algae for Arsenic Accumulation
Arsenic (As) is a toxic element which may contaminate water and soil either by geogenic and anthropogenic processes. High concentration of As in groundwater may affect human health through drinking water and contaminate soil through irrigation. High arsenic contents in the groundwater have been reported from various parts of the globe due to the geogenic origin. Different sites have been reported with high arsenic than its maximum permissible limit in the states of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh in India. Besides, continuous irrigation with groundwater with the high amount of As contaminating the agricultural soil leads to high As concentration in the soil and plants growing therein. Through the processes of leaching and seepage of agricultural runoff As may mobilize and contaminate freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes. Arsenic contamination and mobilization into the water and soil may lead to food chain contamination and health hazards. Aquatic plants and algae growing in As effected sites concentrate it into their biomass through bioaccumulation process. Various aquatic plants have been identified as an efficient arsenic accumulator like Eichhornia crassipesm, Lemna minor, and Spirodela polyrrhiza which may be exploited in removing arsenic from contaminated water individually and by developing a plant-based treatment system. Similarly, arsenic accumulator algal species may be utilized for biomonitoring, algae-mediated As removal, and amelioration of As toxicity.
KeywordsAlgae Aquatic macrophytes Metalloids Phytoremediation Xenobiotics
The author is thankful to Dean and Director of School of Basic Sciences, Manipal University Jaipur, India, for providing facilities.
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