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Ice Nucleation Activity in Plants: The Distribution, Characterization, and Their Roles in Cold Hardiness Mechanisms

  • Masaya Ishikawa
  • Hideyuki Yamazaki
  • Tadashi Kishimoto
  • Hiroki Murakawa
  • Timothy Stait-Gardner
  • Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
  • William S. Price
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1081)

Abstract

Control of freezing in plant tissues is a key issue in cold hardiness mechanisms. Yet freeze-regulation mechanisms remain mostly unexplored. Among them, ice nucleation activity (INA) is a primary factor involved in the initiation and regulation of freezing events in plant tissues, yet the details remain poorly understood. To address this, we developed a highly reproducible assay for determining plant tissue INA and noninvasive freeze visualization tools using MRI and infrared thermography. The results of visualization studies on plant freezing behaviors and INA survey of over 600 species tissues show that (1) freezing-sensitive plants tend to have low INA in their tissues (thus tend to transiently supercool), while wintering cold-hardy species have high INA in some specialized tissues; and (2) the high INA in cold-hardy tissues likely functions as a freezing sensor to initiate freezing at warm subzero temperatures at appropriate locations and timing, resulting in the induction of tissue-/species-specific freezing behaviors (e.g., extracellular freezing, extraorgan freezing) and the freezing order among tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen (likely INA level dependent). The spatiotemporal distributions of tissue INA, their characterization, and functional roles are detailed. INA assay principles, anti-nucleation activity (ANA), and freeze visualization tools are also described.

Keywords

Ice nucleation activity Freezing behavior Cold hardiness Ice blocking barrier Freeze regulating substances Subzero temperature sensor Freezing order Supercooling Anti-nucleation activity MRI Infrared thermography Extracellular freezing Freezing tolerance Freezing avoidance Water 

Abbreviations

ANA

Anti-nucleation activity

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

INA

Ice nucleation activity

INT

Ice nucleation temperature

IR

Infrared

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Kitashima, Kitanaka, Oda, Nakatani, and Ishikawa of NIAS for their technical assistance. The authors acknowledge the facilities and the scientific and technical assistance of the National Imaging Facility, Western Sydney University Node. This was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant numbers JP17H03763, JP26660030, JP23380023, and JP16380030 to M.I., IBBP Research Fund from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to M.I., the New Technology Development Foundation (Plant Research Fund 25–23, 26-22) and Kieikai Research Foundation (2016S069) to K.K.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaya Ishikawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hideyuki Yamazaki
    • 3
  • Tadashi Kishimoto
    • 4
  • Hiroki Murakawa
    • 5
  • Timothy Stait-Gardner
    • 6
  • Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
    • 5
  • William S. Price
    • 6
  1. 1.Imaging Frontier CenterTokyo University of ScienceNodaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Forest Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan
  3. 3.International Patent Organism DepositoryNational Institute of Technology and EvaluationKisarazuJapan
  4. 4.Division of Plant SciencesNational Institute of Agrobiological SciencesTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Applied Biological ScienceTokyo University of ScienceNodaJapan
  6. 6.Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics GroupWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia

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