Control of Physical Changes in Food Products

  • Kiyoshi KawaiEmail author
  • Tomoaki Hagiwara
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1081)


Food is a multicomponent system that mainly comprises protein, carbohydrate, fat, and water. During food processing and preservation, various physical changes (e.g., melting, crystallization, glass transition) occur in food products, affecting their quality. This chapter specifically examines the effect of physical changes on the quality of dry and frozen food products. Dry food products are commonly in an amorphous state. Therefore, glass transition occurs during their dehydration–rehydration processing. To control their texture and physical stability, it is important to elucidate the effects of water contents on the glass transition temperature of dry food products. Frozen foods consist of ice crystals and freeze-concentrated matrix. The formation of ice crystal and the dynamics of ice crystal evolution affect food quality. Therefore control of ice crystals is important for high-quality frozen food. Moreover, because freeze-concentrated matrix consists of solute that are plasticized by the unfrozen water and is in an amorphous state, it can undergo glass transition by freeze concentration. The physical state of freeze-concentrated matrix also strongly affects the stability of food quality during frozen storage.


Glass transition Water plasticizing Ice crystallization Dry food Frozen food 



Antifreeze protein


Differential scanning calorimetry




Glass transition temperature


Glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase


Thermal rheological analysis


Critical water content



K. Kawai gratefully acknowledges financial support from JSPS KAKENHI: Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (24780129) and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research C (15K07453). T. Hagiwara acknowledges funding from the Iwatani Naoji Foundation.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Biosphere ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-Hiroshima, HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Marine Science and TechnologyTokyo University of Marine Science TechnologyTokyoJapan

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