Development and Application of Cryoprotectants

  • Robin Rajan
  • Kazuaki MatsumuraEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1081)


Cryopreservation involves the preservation of biological materials, including cells, embryos, tissues, and organs, at ultra-low temperatures (in a state of suspended animation), for a long period of time, and in a way that allows them to be restored whenever required. Freezing of biological samples is generally accompanied by numerous undesirable outcomes such as intra- and extracellular freezing damage and osmotic stress. To prevent these adverse effects, cryoprotective agents (CPAs) are added to biological materials before freezing. Over the years, a number of CPAs have been identified and developed and have been employed successfully for numerous applications. Here, we review the history and development of cryoprotectants and the current understanding of the cryopreservation process. We conclude with a discussion about the application of cryopreservation for various clinical and academic studies.


Cryopreservation Vitrification Polymers Cells Tissues 



Assisted reproductive technology


Carboxylated poly-l-lysine


Cryoprotective agent


Dimethyl sulfoxide


Hydroxyethyl starch






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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials ScienceJapan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyNomiJapan

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