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The Antioxidant System in the Anhydrobiotic Midge as an Essential, Adaptive Mechanism for Desiccation Survival

  • Alexander Nesmelov
  • Richard Cornette
  • Oleg Gusev
  • Takahiro Kikawada
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1081)

Abstract

One of the major damaging factors for living organisms experiencing water insufficiency is oxidative stress. Loss of water causes a dramatic increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the ability for some organisms to survive almost complete desiccation (called anhydrobiosis) is tightly related to the ability to overcome extraordinary oxidative stress. The most complex anhydrobiotic organism known is the larva of the chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki. Its antioxidant system shows remarkable features, such as an expansion of antioxidant genes, their overexpression, as well as the absence or low expression of enzymes required for the synthesis of ascorbate and glutathione and their antioxidant function. In this chapter, we summarize existing data about the antioxidant system of this insect, which is able to cope with substantial oxidative damage, even in an intracellular environment that is severely disturbed due to water loss.

Keywords

Anhydrobiosis P. vanderplanki Antioxidant Thioredoxin Glutathione peroxidase Superoxide dismutase 

Abbreviations

ARIds

Anhydrobiosis-related gene islands

CCS

Copper chaperone protein

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

Grx-like

Glutaredoxin-like

MPEC

2-Methyl-6-p-methoxyphenylethynylimidazopyrazinone

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TRX

Thioredoxin

TrxR

Thioredoxin reductase

Notes

Acknowledgments

We extend our gratitude to the Federal Ministry of Environment of Nigeria for permitting research on P. vanderplanki. The work was performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University and was supported by Russian Science Foundation grant for international group 14-44-00022. The work was also supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17H01511, JP16K07308, JP15H05622, JP25128714, and JP23128512.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Nesmelov
    • 1
  • Richard Cornette
    • 2
  • Oleg Gusev
    • 1
    • 3
  • Takahiro Kikawada
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Kazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia
  2. 2.Molecular Biomimetics Research Unit, Institute of Agrobiological SciencesNAROTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.RIKEN Center for Life Science TechnologiesRIKENYokohamaJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoChibaJapan

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