Advertisement

Shoulder Examination

  • S. Prabhakar
  • Kevin Syam
Chapter

Abstract

Shoulder examination comprises of examining the shoulder girdle as a whole which consists of
  1. 1.

    The sternoclavicular joint—a saddle type of joint between the medial end of the clavicle, the manubrium sterni and the first rib

     
  2. 2.

    The acromioclavicular joint—a plane synovial joint between the acromion process and the lateral end of the clavicle

     
  3. 3.

    The glenohumeral joint—a multiaxial synovial joint

     
  4. 4.

    The scapulothoracic articulation—comprising of the body of the scapula and the muscles over the posterior chest wall.

     

References

  1. 1.
    Hess SA. Functional stability of the glenohumeral joint. Man Ther. 2000;5:63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tillman B, Petersen W. Clinical anatomy. In: Wulleer N, Mansat M, Fu F, editors. Shoulder surgery: an illustrated textbook. London: Martin Dunitz; 2001.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warner JJ. The gross anatomy of the joint surfaces, ligaments, labrum and capsule. In: Matsen FA, Fu FH, Hawkins RI, editors. The shoulder: a balance of mobility and stability. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; 1993.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beighton P, Solomon L, Soskolne CL. Articular mobility in an African population. Ann Rheum Dis. 1973;32:413–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Butters KP. Nerve lesions of the shoulder. In: De Lee JC, Drez D, editors. Orthopedic sports medicine: principles and practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1994.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schultz IS, Leonard JA. Long thoracic neuropathy from athletic activity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992;73:87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen M, Warren R. Ligamentous control of shoulder stability based on selective cutting and static translation. Clin Sports Med. 1991;10:757–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duralde X. Surgical management of neurologic and vascular lesions in the athlete’s shoulder. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2000;8:289–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fiddian NJ, King RI. The winged scapula. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984;(185):228–36.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boublik M, Silliman JF. History and physical examination. In: Hawkins III ILJ, Misamore GW, editors. Shoulder injuries in the athlete. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hawkins RJ, Mohtadi NG. Clinical evaluation of shoulder instability. Clin J Sport Med. 1991;1:59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harryman DT, Sidles JA, Harris SL, Matsen FA. Laxity of the normal glenohumeral joint: a quantitative in vivo assessment. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1992;1:66–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andrews JA, Timmerman LA, Wilk KE. Baseball. In: Pettrone FA, editor. Athletic injuries of the shoulder. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1995.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gerber C, Ganz R. Clinical assessment of instability of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1984;66:551–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leffert RD, Gumley G. The relationship between dead arm syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1987;(223):20–31.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silliman JF, Hawkins RJ. Classification and physical diagnosis of instability of the shoulder. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993;(291):7–19.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rockwood CA. Subluxations and dislocations about the shoulder. In: Rockwood CA, Green DP, editors. Fractures in adults. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott; 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rowe CR. Dislocations of the shoulder. In: Rowe CR, editor. The shoulder. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1988.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramsey ML, Klimkiewicz JJ. Posterior instability: diagnosis and management. In: Iarmotti JP, Williams CR, editors. Disorders of the shoulder. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pollack RG, Bigliani LU. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993;(291):85–96.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McFarland EG, Campbell C, McDowell J. Posterior shoulder laxity in asymptomatic athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24:468–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsen FA, Thomas SC, Rockwood CA. Glenohumeral instability. In: Rockwood CA, Matsen FA, editors. The shoulder. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arcand MA, Reider B. Shoulder and upper arm. In: Reider B, editor. The orthopedic physical examination. Philadelphia: W. B. Salmders; 1999.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kibler WB. Role of the scapula in the overhead throwing motion. Contemp Orthop. 1991;22:525–33.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davies GJ, Dickoff-Hoffman S. Neuromuscular testing and rehabilitation of the shoulder complex. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1993;18:449–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kibler WB. Evaluation and diagnosis of scapulothoracic problems in the athlete. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2000;8:192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kibler WB. The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:325–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldbeck TG, Davies GJ. Test-retest reliability of the closed kinetic chain-upper extremity stability test: a clinical field test. J Sport Rehabil. 2000;9:35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Neer CS, Welsh RP. The shoulder in sports. Orthop Clin N Am. 1977;8:583–91.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hawkins RJ, Kennedy JC. Impingement syndrome in athletics. Am J Sports Med. 1980;8:151–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rudert M, Wulker M. Clinical evaluation. In: Wulleer N, Mansat M, Fu F, editors. Shoulder surgery: an illustrated textbook. London: Martin Dunitz; 2001.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kelley MJ. Evaluation of the shoulder. In: Kelley MJ, Clark WA, editors. Orthopedic therapy of the shoulder. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott; 1995.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Corso G. Impingement relief test: an adjunctive procedure to traditional assessment of shoulder impingement syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995;22:183–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Meister K. Injuries to the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Part II: evaluation/treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28:587–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jobe CM. Posterior superior glenoid impingement: expanded spectrum. Arthroscopy. 1995;1l:530–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jobe CM. Superior glenoid impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996;330:98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Giombini A, Rossi F, Pettrone FA, Dragoni S. Posterosuperior glenoid rim impingment as a cause of shoulder pain in top level waterpolo players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1997;37:273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yergason RM. Supination sign. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1931;13:160.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan KM, Cook JL, Taunton JE, Bonar F. Overuse tendinosis, not tendinitis. Part 1: a new paradigm for a difficult clinical problem. Phys Sportsmed. 2000;28:38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ludington NA. Rupture of the long head of the biceps flexor cubiti muscle. Ann Surg. 1923;77:358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davies GJ, Gould JA, Larson RL. Functional examination of the shoulder girdle. Phys Sportsmed. 1981;9:82–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Post M. Physical examination of the musculoskeletal system. Chicago: Year Book Medical; 1987.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lippman RK. Frozen shoulder: periarthritis, bicipital tendinitis. Arch Surg. 1943;7:283–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jobe FW, Moynes DR. Delineation of diagnostic criteria and a rehabilitation program for rotator cuff injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1982;10:336–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moseley HF. Disorders of the shoulder. Clin Symp. 1960;12:130.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Matsen FA, Lippitt SB, Sidles IA, Harlyman DT. Practical evaluation and management of the shoulder. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1994.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gerber c, Krushell RJ. Isolated ruptures of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1991;73:389–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ticker JB, Warner JJ. Single-tendon tears of the rotator cuff. Evaluation and treatment of subscapularis tears. Orthop Clin N Am. 1997;28:99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arroyo JS, Flatow EL. Management of rotator cuff disease: intact and repairable cuff. In: Iannotti JP, Williams GR, editors. Disorders of the shoulder. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hertel R, Ballmer FT, Lambert SM, Gerber CH. Lag signs in the diagnosis of rotator cuff rupture. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1996;5:307–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stefko JM, Jobe FW, Vanderwilde RS, Carden E, Pink M. Electromyographic and nerve block analysis of the subscapularis lift off test. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1997;6:347–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams GR. Complications of rotator cuff surgery. In: Iannotti JP, Williams CR, editors. Disorders of the shoulder. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    McClusky CM. Clasification and diagnosis of glenohumeral instability in athletes. Sports Med Arthosc Rev. 2000;8:158–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Walch G, Boulahia A, Calderone S, Robinson AH. The dropping and Hornblower’s signs in evaluating rotator cuff tears. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1998;80:624–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kendall HO, Kendall FP. Muscles-testing and function. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brunnstrom S. Muscle testing around the shoulder girdle-a study of the function of shoulder blade fixators in 17 cases of shoulder paralysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1941;23:263–72.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Andrews JR, Gillogly S. Physical examination of the shoulder in throwing athletes. In: Zarins B, Andrews JR, Carson WG, editors. Injuries to the throwing arm. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1985.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kibler WB. Clinical examination of the shoulder. In: Pettrone FA, editor. Athletic injuries of the shoulder. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1995.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kibler WB. Specificity and sensitivity of the anterior slide test in throwing athletes with superior glenoid labral tears. Arthroscopy. 1995;11:296–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    O’Brien SJ, Pagnoni MJ, Fealy S, McGlynn SR, Wilson JB. The active compression test: a new and effective test for diagnosing labral tears and acromioclavicular joint abnormality. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:610–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Snyder, S.J" R.P. Karzel, W. Del Pizzo, R.D. Ferkel, and M.J. Friedman: SLAP lesions of the shoulder. Arthroscopy 6:274–279, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kim SH, Ha KI, Han KY. Biceps load test: a clinical test for superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions in shoulder with recurrent anterior dislocations. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27:300–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kim SH, Ha KI, Ahn JH, et al. Biceps load test II: a clinical test for SLAP lesions of the shoulder. Arthroscopy. 2001;17:160–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Berg EE, Ciullo JV. A clinical test for superior glenoid labral or ‘SLAP’ lesions. Clin J Sport Med. 1998;8:121–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liu SH, Henry MH, Nuccion SL. A prospective evaluation of a new physical examination in predicting glenoid labral tears. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24:721–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mimori K, Mlmeta T, Nakagawa T, Shinomiya K. A new pain provocation test for superior labral tears of the sholuder. Am J Sports Med. 1999;27:137–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Guidi EJ, Suckerman JD. Glenoid labrallesions. In: Andrews JR, Wilk KE, editors. The athlete’s shoulder. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1994.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Buchberger DJ. Introduction of a new physical examination procedure for the differentiation of acromioclavicular joint lesions and subacromial impingement. J Manip Physiol Ther. 1999;22:316–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Roos DB. Congenital anomalies associated with thoracic outlet syndrome. Am J Surg. 1976;132:771–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wright IS. The neurovascular syndrome produced by hyperabduction of the arms. Am Heart J. 1945;29:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hawkins RJ, Bokor DJ. Clinical evaluation of shoulder problems. In: Rockwood CA, Matsen FA, editors. The shoulder. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1990.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Adson AW, Coffey JR. Cervical rib: a method of anterior approach for relief of symptoms by division of the scalenus anticus. Ann Surg. 1927;85:839–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Prabhakar
    • 1
  • Kevin Syam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Wrightington HospitalWiganUK

Personalised recommendations