Gaṇitānanda pp 371-387 | Cite as

Addition and Subtraction Theorems for the Sine and the Cosine in Medieval India

  • K. RamasubramanianEmail author


The paper deals with the rules of finding the sines and the cosines of the sum and difference of two angles when those of the two angles are known separately. The rules, as found in the important medieval Indian works, are equivalent to the correct modern mathematical results. Indians of the said period also knew several proofs of the formulas. These proofs are based on simple algebraic and geometrical reasoning, including proportionality of sides of similar triangles and the Ptolemy’s theorem.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cell for Indian Science and Technology in Sanskrit, Department of Humanities and Social SciencesIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

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