Advertisement

Sexual Paraphilia

  • Shah Dupesh Khan
  • Karthik Gunasekaran
Chapter

Abstract

Human beings are inherently sexual in nature. An individual’s sexual behaviour can have a profound impact on the person’s sexuality regardless of how this behaviour occurs, be it masturbation in isolation or penetrative intercourse with a partner. Sex per say is not always done with an aim for procreation [1]. The individual’s propensity for sex can be both procreative and non-procreative. The degree of inclination and the extent of engagement in the act though will depend on the individual’s society, his/her culture, upbringing, religious beliefs/taboos, other people’s expectation and opportunities [2]. What constitutes a normal sexual behaviour? There is no straightforward answer. What may be normal in one culture/society may be abnormal in another. The definition of ‘normalcy’ is driven by society and/or cultural values, and the extent of ‘deviance’ is also influenced by the same. Furthermore the ‘degree of deviance’ in some sexual behaviours can be quantified by comparing with already established norms, but this is not possible for all sex-related behaviours and conditions [3].

References

  1. 1.
    Bhugra D, de Silva P. Uniforms: fact, fashion, fantasy or fetish. Sex Marital Ther. 1996;11:393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berridge KC, Kringlebach ML. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology. 2008;199:457–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baumeister RF. Gender and erotic plasticity: sociocultural influences on the sex drive. Sex Relationship Ther. 2004;19(2):133–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baxter DJ, Marshall WL, Barbaree HE, Davidson PR, Malcolm PB. Deviant sexual behavior: differentiating sex offenders by criminal and personal history, psychometric measures, and sexual response. Crim Justice Behav. 1984;11(4):477–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kligerman N. Homosexuality in Islam: a difficult paradox. Macalester Islam J. 2007;2(3):8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loftus J. America’s liberalization in attitudes toward homosexuality, 1973 to 1998. Am Sociol Rev. 2001;66:762–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Odimegwu C. Influence of religion on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviour among Nigerian university students: affiliation or commitment? Afr J Reprod Health. 2005;9:125–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castillo RJ. Culture, trance, and the mind-brain. Anthropol Conscious. 1995;6(1):17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ayonrinde O, Bhugra D. Paraphilias and culture. In: Troublesome disguises: managing challenging disorders in psychiatry. 2014. p. 199.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hofstede G. Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhugra D, Popelyuk D, McMullen I. Paraphilias across cultures: contexts and controversies. J Sex Res. 2010;47(2–3):242–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adamczyk A, Hayes BE. Religion and sexual behaviors: understanding the influence of Islamic cultures and religious affiliation for explaining sex outside of marriage. Am Sociol Rev. 2012;77(5):723–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doniger W. The “Kamasutra”: it isn’t all about sex. Kenyon Rev. 2003;25(1):18–37.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ibrahim I. From ancient Greco-Roman culture the contemporary LGBTQ community: the transfer of sex and power dynamics. Denison J Religion. 2016;15(1):4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sumathipala A, Siribaddana SH, Bhugra D. Culture-bound syndromes: the story of dhat syndrome. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184(3):200–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    First MB, Frances A. Issues for DSM-V: unintended consequences of small changes: the case of paraphilias.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balon R. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of paraphilias. J Sex Marital Ther. 2013;39(1):7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moser C. Yet another paraphilia definition fails. Arch Sex Behav. 2011;40(3):483–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Woodworth M, Freimuth T, Hutton EL, Carpenter T, Agar AD, Logan M. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2013;36(2):144–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laws DR, O’Donohue WT, editors. Sexual deviance: theory, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wakefield JC. DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria for sexual paraphilias: tensions between diagnostic validity and forensic utility. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2011;34(3):195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Långström NI, Zucker KJ. Transvestic fetishism in the general population. J Sex Marital Ther. 2005;31(2):87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abel GG, Becker JV, Cunningham-Rathner J, Mittelman M, Rouleau JL. Multiple paraphilic diagnoses among sex offenders. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Online. 1988;16(2):153–68.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smallbone SW, Wortley RK. Criminal diversity and paraphilic interests among adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2004;48(2):175–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lebegue B. Paraphilias in US pornography titles: “pornography made me do it” (Ted Bundy). Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1991;19:43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Porter S, Demetrioff S, Ten Brinke L. Sexual psychopath: current understanding and future challenges. In: Schlank A, editor. The sexual predator, vol. 4. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute; 2010. p. 13-1–13-12.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Porter S, Woodworth M, Earle J, Drugge J, Boer D. Characteristics of sexual homicides committed by psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Law Hum Behav. 2003;27(5):459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Porter S, Fairweather D, Drugge J, Herve H, Birt A, Boer DP. Profiles of psychopathy in incarcerated sexual offenders. Crim Justice Behav. 2000;27(2):216–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rice ME, Quinsey VL, Harris GT. Sexual recidivism among child molesters released from a maximum security psychiatric institution. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59(3):381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maniglio R. The role of deviant sexual fantasy in the etiopathogenesis of sexual homicide: a systematic review. Aggress Violent Behav. 2010;15(4):294–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gray NS, Watt A, Hassan S, Macculloch MJ. Behavioral indicators of sadistic sexual murder predict the presence of sadistic sexual fantasy in a normative sample. J Interpers Violence. 2003;18(9):1018–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fitzgerald EA. Chemical castration: MPA treatment of the sexual offender. Am J Crim Law. 1990;18:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thibaut F, Barra FD, Gordon H, Cosyns P, Bradford JM. WFSBP task force on sexual disorders. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of paraphilias. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11(4):604–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bancroft J. The endocrinology of sexual arousal. J Endocrinol. 2005;186(3):411–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stein DJ, Hollander E, Anthony DT, Schneier FR, Fallon BA, Liebowitz MR, Klein DF. Serotonergic medications for sexual obsessions, sexual addictions, and paraphilias. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992;53:267–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kafka MP. Successful antidepressant treatment of nonparaphilic sexual addictions and paraphilias in men. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991;52:60–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ryback RS. Naltrexone in the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:982–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kobayashi T. Effect of haloperidol on a patient with hypersexuality following frontal lobe injury. Psychogeriatrics. 2004;4(2):49–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Briken P, Hill A, Berner W. Pharmacotherapy of paraphilias with long-acting agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:890–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guay DR. Drug treatment of paraphilic and nonparaphilic sexual disorders. Clin Ther. 2009;31(1):1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Laschet U, Laschet L. Antiandrogens in the treatment of sexual deviations of men. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Hormonal Steroids, Mexico City. 1976. p. 821–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garcia FD, Thibaut F. Current concepts in the pharmacotherapy of paraphilias. Drugs. 2011;71(6):771–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shah Dupesh Khan
    • 1
  • Karthik Gunasekaran
    • 1
  1. 1.The Metromale Clinic and Fertility CenterChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations