• Karthik Gunasekaran
  • Shah Dupesh Khan


One of the most commonly encountered problems in the practice of sexual medicine has been the serious concern men frequently have about penis size starting from puberty to adulthood. Men are extremely anxious about their penile length [1]. The penis is credited with the dual function of coitus and micturition. In biology, the ability to transfer sperms denotes maleness of an organism. To a man, no matter what his socioeconomic status is, the size of the penis always matters [2].


  1. 1.
    Van Seters AP, Slob AK. Mutually gratifying heterosexual relationship with micropenis of husband. J Sex Marital Ther. 1988;14(2):98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lever J, Frederick DA, Peplau LA. Does size matter? Men’s and women’s views on penis size across the lifespan. Psychol Men Masculinity. 2006;7(3):129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wylie KR, Eardley I. Penile size and the ‘small penis syndrome’. BJU Int. 2007;99(6):1449–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Talalaj J. The strangest human sex, ceremonies and customs. Melbourne: Hill of Content Publishing Company Pty Ltd; 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schonfeld WA, Beebe GW. Normal growth and variation in the male genitalia from birth to maturity. J Urol. 1942;48(6):759–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aaronson IA. Micropenis: medical and surgical implications. J Urol. 1994;152:4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson CP, Park JM, Wan J, Bloom DA, Dunn RL, Wei JT. The increasing incidence of congenital penile anomalies in the United States. J Urol. 2005;174(4):1573–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson P, Maxwell D. Fetal penile length. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15:308–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zalel Y, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Lipitz S, Mashiach S, Achiron R. The development of the fetal penis-an in utero sonographic evaluation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;17:129–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evans BA, Williams DM, Hughes IA. Normal postnatal androgen production and action in isolated micropenis and isolated hypospadias. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66:1033–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hatipoğlu N, Kurtoğlu S. Micropenis: etiology, diagnosis and treatment approaches. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013;5(4):217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ludwig G. Micropenis and apparent micropenis—a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Andrologia. 1999;31(S1):27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsang S. When size matters: a clinical review of pathological micropenis. J Pediatr Health Care. 2010;24(4):231–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kayes O, Shabbir M, Ralph D, Minhas S. Therapeutic strategies for patients with micropenis or penile dysmorphic disorder. Nat Rev Urol. 2012;9(9):499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ozbey H, Temiz A, Salman T. A simple method for measuring penile length in newborns and infants. BJU Int. 1999;84:1093–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bergeson PS, Hopkin RJ, Bailey RB, MCGill LC, Piatt JP. The inconspicuous penis. Pediatrics. 1993;92(6):794–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wollin M, Duffy PG, Malone PS, Ransley PG. Buried penis. A novel approach. BJU Int. 1990;65(1):97–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palmer JS, Elder JS, Palmer LS. The use of betamethasone to manage the trapped penis following neonatal circumcision. J Urol. 2005;174(4):1577–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Menon PS, Khatwa UA. The child with micropenis. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(6):455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sultan C, Paris F, Jeandel C, Lumbroso S, Galifer RB. Ambiguous genitalia in the newborn. Semin Reprod Med. 2002;20:181–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McEachern R, Houle AM, Garel L, Van Vliet G. Lost and found testes: the importance of the hCG stimulation test and other testicular markers to confirm a surgical declaration of anorchia. Horm Res Paediatr. 2004;62(3):124–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shamloul R. Treatment of men complaining of short penis. Urology. 2005;65:1183–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burstein S, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL. Early determination of androgen-responsiveness is important in the management of microphallus. Lancet. 1979;2:983–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guthrie RD, Smith DW, Graham CB. Testosterone treatment for micropenis during early childhood. J Pediatr. 1973;83:247–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Main KM, Schmidt IM, Skakkebaek NE. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys: progressive hypogonadism without the postnatal testosterone peak. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4905–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bin-Abbas B, Conte FA, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and micropenis: effect of testosterone treatment on adult penile size why sex reversal is not indicated. J Pediatr. 1999;134:579–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borsellino A, Spagnoli A, Vallasciani S, Martini L, Ferro F. Surgical approach to concealed penis: technical refinements and outcome. Urology. 2007;69:1195–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arisaka O, Hoshi M, Kanazawa S, Nakajima D, Numata M, Nishikura K, Oyama M, Nitta A, Kuribayashi T, Kano K, Nakayama Y, Yamashiro Y. Systemic effects of transdermal testosterone for the treatment of microphallus in children. Pediatr Int. 2001;43:134–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baskin LS, Sutherland RS, DiSandro MJ, Hayward SW, Lipschutz J, Cunha GR. The effect of testosterone on androgen receptors and human penile growth. J Urol. 1997;158:1113–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bertelloni S, Scaramuzzo RT, Parrini D, Baldinotti F, Tumini S, Ghirri P. Early diagnosis of 5alpha-reductase deficiency in newborns. Sex Dev. 2007;1:147–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaya C, Bektic J, Radmayr C, Schwentner C, Bartsch G, Oswald J. The efficacy of dihydrotestosterone transdermal gel before primary hypospadias surgery: a prospective, controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2008;179:684–8. Epub 2007 Dec 20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Han TS, Bouloux PM. What is the optimal therapy for young males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism? Clin Endocrinol. 2010;72(6):731–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hinman F Jr. Microphallus: characteristics and choice of treatment from a study of 20 cases. J Urol. 1972;107:499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Babaei A, Safarinejad MR, Farrokhi F, Iran-Pour E. Penile reconstruction: evaluation of the most accepted techniques. Urol J. 2010;7:71–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Monstrey S, Hoebeke P, Selvaggi G, Ceulemans P, Van Landuyt K, Blondeel P, Hamdi M, Roche N, Weyers S, De Cuypere G. Penile reconstruction: is the radial forearm flap really the standard technique? Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:510–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karthik Gunasekaran
    • 1
  • Shah Dupesh Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.The Metromale Clinic and Fertility CenterChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations