Contextual Framework

  • Ali Mehdi
  • Divya Chaudhry
  • Priyanka Tomar
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Political Science book series (BRIEFSPOLITICAL)


This chapter lays out the contextual framework, starting with discussion of geographical and demographical aspects of the Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region. Following an in-depth analysis of the political economy of J&K state, India, since pre-independence era, the chapter analyzes its performance on selected economic and fiscal indicators over time as well as vis-à-vis selected states in the country. It also delves into a detailed analysis of employment situation in J&K state vis-à-vis other Indian states and explains why the issue of quality jobs is of particular relevance to fragile as well as poor-/lower-middle income states which witness a greater degree of economic distress. Finally, it attempts to capture deficits in human capital formation in J&K state by analyzing its status of health and education.


J&K Geography Demography Political economy Economic indicators Fiscal situation Employment Human capital 


  1. Abel, J. R., Dey, I., & Gabe, T. M. (2011). Productivity and the density of human capital. Journal of Regional Science, 52(4), 562–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia, M. (2000). Economic performance of states in post-reforms period. Economic and Political Weekly, 35(19), 1637–1648.Google Scholar
  3. Akmali, M. (2014, August 14). Education: Dropout rate of 25% sets off alarm in JK. Greater Kashmir. Retrieved from Last accessed on 10 Apr 2017.
  4. Alessandrini, M., Buccellato, T., & Scaramozzino, P. (2008). Whither the Indian Union? Regional disparities and economic reforms. Rivista Italiana degli Economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, 13(3), 367–400.Google Scholar
  5. All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE). (2015–2016). Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.Google Scholar
  6. Amin, S., & Khan, A. W. (2009). Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir. International Journal of Health Sciences, 3(2), 213–223.Google Scholar
  7. Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). (2014). Pratham, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  8. Aslam, M. (1977). Land Reforms in Jammu and Kashmir. Social Scientist, 6(4), 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aziz, J. U. (2010). Economic history of modern Kashmir with special reference to agriculture (1947–1989). PhD thesis, University of Kashmir. Retrieved from
  10. Bakshi, S., & Kumar, A. (2014). The emergence of popular movement against the Dogra rule in J&K: The interface between religion and politics. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(12), 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, G. S. (2007). Health as human capital: synthesis and extensions. Oxford Economic Papers, 59(3), 379–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Besley, T., Burgess, R., & Esteve-Volart, B. (2005). Operationalising pro-poor growth: India case study.Google Scholar
  13. Betancourt, T. S., McBain, R. K., Newnham, E. A., & Brennan, R. T. (2015). The intergenerational impact of war: longitudinal relationships between caregiver and child mental health in postconflict Sierra Leone. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 56(10), 1101–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhandari, L., & Chakraborty, M. (Indicus Analytics). (2015, February 24). Spatial poverty in Jammu and Kashmir. Mint. Retrieved from
  15. Bhanumurthy, N. (2016, October 17). Jammu and Kashmir: An economy in turmoil. Greater Kashmir.Google Scholar
  16. Blattman, C., & Miguel, E. (2010). Civil War. Journal of Economic Literature, 48(1), 3–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butt, K. A. (2005). Strategizing industrial development in Jammu and Kashmir. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  18. Chaudhuri, S. (2000). Economic growth in the states: Four decades. ICRA Bulletin (Money and Finance), 45–69.Google Scholar
  19. Chowdhary, R. (2015). Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of identity and separatism. New Delhi: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Das, G., & Jyoti, B. (1968). Jammu and Kashmir. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  21. Debroy, B., Bhandari, L., & Aiyar, S. (2014). Economic freedom of the states of India 2013. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  22. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Government. India – Advice levels. Retrieved from Last accessed on 9 Apr 2018.
  23. Department of Horticulture of J&K. (2014). District-wise area and production of fruits in Jammu and Kashmir for the year 2001–2002.Google Scholar
  24. Devakumar, D., Birch, M., Osrin, D., Sondorp, E., & Wells, J. C. K. (2014). The intergenerational effects of war on the health of children. BMC Medicine, 12, 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Education of Muslims in Kashmir. Shodhganga. Last accessed on 28 Sept 2017.
  26. Firdous, N. (2015). Kashmir conflict: Alarming mental health consequences. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(1).Google Scholar
  27. George, A., & Sheikh, K. (2010). Health providers in India: On the frontlines of change. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Government of Canada. Travel – India. Retrieved from Last accessed on 9 Apr 2018.
  29. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2013). Economic Survey 2012–13. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir.Google Scholar
  30. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2014a). Digest of statistics 2013–14. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir.Google Scholar
  31. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2014b). Economic Survey 2013–14. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir.Google Scholar
  32. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2015). Economic Survey 2014–15 (Vol. 1). Srinagar.Google Scholar
  33. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2016). Economic Survey 2016. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir.Google Scholar
  34. Government of Jammu & Kashmir. (2017). Digest of statistics 2015–16: DOS (41)/17. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir.Google Scholar
  35. Hussain, A., & Sinha, R. (2016). Trading confidence: A compelling case for cross line of control trade. Bureau of Research on Industry and Economic Fundamentals (BRIEF) and Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
  36. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. (2009). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005–06: Jammu and Kashmir. Mumbai: IIPS.Google Scholar
  37. Islam, A., Ouch, C., Smyth, R., & Wang, L. C. (2015). Sex ratio and the intergenerational impact of conflict on human development: Evidence from Cambodia's genocide.Google Scholar
  38. Jammu & Kashmir Budget Analysis, 2017–18. (2017). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved from
  39. Jammu and Kashmir reports 27 internet shutdowns since 2012. (2017, February 9). The Financial Express. Retrieved from Last accessed on 21 Feb 2017.
  40. Joint Review Mission on Teacher Education. Jammu and Kashmir (2013).Google Scholar
  41. Kiker, B. F. (1966). The Historical Roots of the Concept of Human Capital. Journal of Political Economy, 74(5), 481–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kokiloo, M. R. (2016, May 17). Health services scenario in Kashmir. Greater Kashmir. Retrieved from Last accessed on 22 Aug 2017.
  43. Koul, A. (1925). Geography of the Jammu and Kashmir state (Second Edition, Revised). Calcutta: Thacker, Spink &Co.Google Scholar
  44. León, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation: The long-term effects of political violence in Peru. Journal of Human Resource, 47(4), 991–1022.Google Scholar
  45. Maini, K. D. (2009). Cross-LoC Trade. Prospects and problems. Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Article No. 2785).Google Scholar
  46. Malik, S. (2016, March 17). A luxurious spread. Greater Kashmir. Retrieved from Last accessed on 9 Apr 2018.
  47. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), the University of Kashmir, Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (IMHANS). (2016). Muntazar: Kashmir Mental Health Survey Report 2015.Google Scholar
  48. Ministry of Textiles, GOI. (2014, September 29). Initiatives of the new government in the textiles sector. Press Information Bureau.Google Scholar
  49. Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. (2015). India Tourism Statistics 2014.Google Scholar
  50. Mushkin, S. J. (1962). Health as an Investment. Journal of Political Economy, 70(5, Part 2), 129–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nagaraj, R., Varoudakis, A., & Véganzonès, M.-A. (1998). Long-run growth trends and convergence across Indian states (Working paper No. 131. Economic policy and growth). OECD Development Centre.Google Scholar
  52. National Achievement Survey (NAS). (2014 and 2015). National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi.Google Scholar
  53. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06. (2007). International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India.Google Scholar
  54. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015–16. (2017). International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India.Google Scholar
  55. National Health Profile. (2017). Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.Google Scholar
  56. NSS. (2010). Migration in India: Report No. 533. NSS 64th Round. July 2007–June 2008. New Delhi: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI.Google Scholar
  57. Para, M. H., & Tiwari, U. (2016). Contextualizing governance in Jammu and Kashmir under Shaikh Mohammad Abdullah (1947–53). Asia Pacific Journal of Research, I(XLVI), 21–25.Google Scholar
  58. Prakash, S. (2000). The political economy of Kashmir since 1947. Contemporary South Asia, 9(3), 315–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raghavan, T. S. (2016, July 24). J&K gets 10% of Central funds with only 1% of population. The Hindu. Retrieved from Last accessed on 18 Oct 2017.
  60. Raina, M. Q. (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri speaking people. Analytical perspective. Singapore: Partridge Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Rana, R. S. (2015, October 1). Plight of higher education in J&K. State Times. Retrieved from Last accessed on 28 Sept 2017
  62. Rao, K. D., Bhatnagar, A., & Berman, P. (2012). So many, yet few: Human resources for health in India. Human Resources for Health, 10, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. RBI. (2016). State finances: A study of budgets of 2015–16. Reserve Bank of India.Google Scholar
  64. Rodrik, D. (1997, October). Globalization, social conflict and economic growth. Raúl Prebisch Lecture, Geneva.Google Scholar
  65. Rural Health Statistics (RHS), 2015–16. (2016). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Statistics Division, Government of India.Google Scholar
  66. Sachs, J. (2003). Institutions don’t rule: Direct effects of geography on per capita income (NBER Working Paper No. 9490). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  67. Saing, C. H., & Kazianga, H. (2017). The long-term impact of U.S. bombing on education, earning, health, fertility and marriage in Cambodia. SSRN Electron J. doi:
  68. Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. The American Economic Review, 51(1), 1–17. Retrieved from
  69. Schultz, T. (1972). Human capital: Policy issues and research opportunities. In Economic research: Retrospect and prospect, volume 6, human resources (pp. 1–84). National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.Google Scholar
  70. Sehgal, N. (2011). Jammu and Kashmir: A state in turbulence. Suruchi Prakashan.Google Scholar
  71. Shah, H. (2015, December 27). Reforming teacher education in Jammu and Kashmir. Greater Kashmir. Retrieved from Last accessed on 10 Apr 2017.
  72. Sofi, M. R. (2014). Economic reforms, state domestic product and economic growth in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(1), 5–11.Google Scholar
  73. Taneja, N., & Bimal, S. (2015). Revisiting India Pakistan Cross-LoC Trade. Economic and Political Weekly, 50(6), 21–23.Google Scholar
  74. Thorner, D. (1953). The Kashmir land reforms: Some personal impressions. The Economic Weekly, (September 12), 999–1002.Google Scholar
  75. Yusuf, M. (2009). Promoting cross-LOC trade in Kashmir: An analysis of the Joint Chamber (Special report 230). Washington, DC United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  76. 45% of Kashmir’s population faces mental distress. (2016, May 19). The Hindu. Retrieved from Last accessed on 28 Sept 2017

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Mehdi
    • 1
  • Divya Chaudhry
    • 1
  • Priyanka Tomar
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations