Analytical Framework

  • Ali Mehdi
  • Divya Chaudhry
  • Priyanka Tomar
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Political Science book series (BRIEFSPOLITICAL)


This chapter provides an analytical framework for the discussions that follow. It discusses the notions and types of freedoms, the most prominent theories, and existing approaches to employment generation in fragile situations and identifies challenges faced by the private sector and potential sectors of employment in fragile and conflict-affected regions.


Individual freedoms Fragility Authority Capacity Legitimacy failures Fragile and conflict-affected situations Job creation 


  1. ADB. (2007). Achieving development effectiveness in weakly performing countries (The Asian Development Bank’s approach to engaging with weakly performing countries).Google Scholar
  2. AfDB. (2014). African Development Bank Group strategy for addressing fragility and building resilience in Africa: 2014–2019.Google Scholar
  3. Basu, K. (2010). Beyond the invisible hand: Groundwork for a new economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beasley, K. (2006). Job creation in postconflict societies (Issue paper No. 9).Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G. (1974). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. In Essays in the economics of crime and punishment. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1–54.Google Scholar
  6. Berlin, I. (1958). Two concepts of liberty. Lecture delivered before the University of Oxford and published by Clarendon Press. Cited in Berlin, I. (1969). Four essays on liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berman, E., Callen, M., Felter, J., & Shapiro, J. (2011). Do working men rebel? Insurgency and unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Philippines. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(4), 496–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binzel, C., & Brück, T. (2007, June). Analyzing conflict and fragility at the micro-level. Paper presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on fragile states–fragile groups, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  9. Blattman, C. & Ralston, L. (2015). Generating employment in poor and fragile states: Evidence from labor market and entrepreneurship programs. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  10. Call, C. T. (2011). Beyond the ‘failed state’: Toward conceptual alternatives. European Journal of International Relations, 17(2), 303–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlin, W. & Schaffer, M. (2012). Understanding the business environment in South Asia (Policy Research Working Paper 6160). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  12. Carment, D., & Samy, Y. (2012). Assessing state fragility: A country indicators for foreign policy project. Commissioned by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).Google Scholar
  13. Carment, D., El-Achkar, S., Prest, S., & Samy, Y. (2006). The 2006 country indicators for foreign policy. Canadian Foreign Policy, 13(1), 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collier, P., & Sambanis, N. (Eds.). (2005). Understanding civil war (volume 1: Africa): Evidence and analysis. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  15. Cramer, C. (2010). Unemployment and participation in violence (World development report: Background paper). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. DFID. (2005). Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states. London: DFID.Google Scholar
  17. DFID. (2008). States in development: Understanding state-building (Edited by Alan Whaites). London: DFIDGoogle Scholar
  18. DFID. (2010). The politics of poverty: Elites, citizens and states: Findings from ten years of DFID-funded research on governance and fragile states 2001–2010 (A synthesis paper). London: DFID.Google Scholar
  19. Dudwick, N., & Srinivasan, R. (2013). Creating jobs in Africa’s fragile states: Are value chains an answer? Directions in development. countries and regions. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. European Commission. (2008). Programming guide for strategy papers. Fragile situations.Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, M. (1976). The fragility of freedom. BYU Studies Quarterly, (4), 16, 561.Google Scholar
  22. g7+. (2013). Note on the fragility spectrum. Launched in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.Google Scholar
  23. GIZ. (2015). Employment promotion in contexts of conflict, fragility and violence: Opportunities and challenges for peacebuilding. Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.Google Scholar
  24. Grävingholt, J., Ziaja, S., & Kreibaum, M. (2012). State fragility: Towards a multi-dimensional empirical typology (Discussion paper 3/2012). Bonn: German Development Institute.Google Scholar
  25. Grimm, S., Lemay-Hébert, N., & Nay, O. (2014). Fragile states: Introducing a political concept. Third World Quarterly, 35(2), 197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gwartney, J., & Lawson, R. (2003). The concept and measurement of economic freedom. European Journal of Political Economy, 19(3), 405–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haider, H. (2009). Community-based approaches to peacebuilding in conflict-affected and fragile contexts (Issues paper). Birmingham: International Development Department, University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  28. Holmes, R., McCord, A., Hagen-Zanker, J., Bergh, G., & Zanker, F. (2013). What is the evidence on the impact of employment creation on stability and poverty reduction in fragile states: A systematic review. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  29. IFC. (2013). IFC jobs study. Assessing private sector contributions to job creation and poverty reduction. Washington, DC: IFC.Google Scholar
  30. IFC. (2015). IFC in fragile and conflict situations (IFC issue brief).Google Scholar
  31. Islam, R. (2004). The nexus of economic growth, employment and poverty reduction: An empirical analysis. Issues in employment and poverty (Discussion paper 14). Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  32. Kohli, A. (2001). The success of India’s democracy. Contemporary South Asia (Vol. 6). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marx, K. (1982). Capital: A critique of political economy (Vol. I). London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
  34. Miller, T., Holmes, K., & Feulner, E. (2013). Highlights of the 2013 Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting economic opportunity and prosperity. In Partnership with The Wall Street Journal: The Heritage Foundation.Google Scholar
  35. MOLE. (2016). Central sector scheme for rehabilitation of bonded labourer (Reference number F. No. S-11012/01/2015-BL). New Delhi: Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.Google Scholar
  36. Naudé, W. A., Paulino, S., Uliafnova, A., & McGillivray, M. (2011). Fragile states: Causes, costs, and responses. A study prepared by the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University (UNU-WIDER). UNU-WIDER Studies in Development Economics. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Nayar, R., Gottret, P., Mitra, P., Betcherman, G., Lee, Y. M., Santos, I. et al. (2011). More and better jobs in South Asia (South Asia Development Matters). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  38. Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, state, and utopia. New York: Basic Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2011). International engagement in fragile states: Can’t we do better? Conflict and fragility. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. OECD. (2012). Fragile states 2013: Resource flows and trends in a shifting world (OECD-DAC International Network on Conflict and Fragility). Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Oehmke, J. (2012). Impacts of USAID-supported agricultural programs: Household income growth and cost-effectiveness for poverty reduction.Google Scholar
  42. Peschka, M. (2011). The role of the private sector in fragile and conflict-affected areas (World Development Report 2011. Background paper).Google Scholar
  43. Piffaretti, N. (2010). From rent-seeking to profit-creation: Private sector development and economic turnaround in fragile states.Google Scholar
  44. Prasad, C. B. (2008). Markets and Manu: Economic reforms and its impact on caste in India. Center for the Advanced Study of India (CASI) working paper, (Number 08-01).Google Scholar
  45. Prasad, C. B., & Kamble, M. (2013, January 23). Manifesto to end caste: Push capitalism and industrialisation to eradicate this pernicious system. The Times of India.Google Scholar
  46. Putzel, J., et al. (2007). Retaining legitimacy in fragile states. In id21 insights 66.Google Scholar
  47. Rajan, R., & Zingales, L. (2004). Making capitalism work for everyone. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 16(4), 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ralston, L. (2014). Job creation in fragile and conflict-affected situations (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7078). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  49. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Scully, G. W. (1988). The institutional framework and economic development. Journal of Political Economy, 96(3), 652–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sen, A. (1979, May). Equality of what? The Tanner Lecture on Human Values, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  52. Sen, A. (2000). Development as freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.Google Scholar
  53. Stewart, F. (2002). Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. British Medical Journal, 324(7333), 342–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stewart, F., & Brown, G. (2009). Fragile states (CRISE Working Paper No. 51). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. The Economist. (2011). Democracy Index 2011: Democracy under stress. A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations, German Technical Cooperation Agency and The World Bank. (2010–2012). Joint response to youth employment in Sierra Leone: Outline of the joint response.Google Scholar
  57. Urdal, H. (2006). A clash of generations: Youth bulges and political violence. International Studies Quarterly, 50, 607–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. USAID. (2005). Fragile states strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Agency for International Development.Google Scholar
  59. de Vries, H., & Specker, L. (2009). Early economic recovery in fragile states: Priority areas and operational challenges. The Hague: Clingendael Institute.Google Scholar
  60. World Bank. (2007). Jharkhand: Addressing the challenges of inclusive development. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management: India Country Management Unit, South Asia: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  61. World Bank. (2011a). World development report 2011: Conflict, security, and development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  62. World Bank (2011b): CPIA 2011 criteria. The World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  63. World Bank. (2015). Labor market dynamics in Libya: Reintegration for recovery. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. World Bank. (2018). Global investment competitiveness report 2017/2018: Foreign investor perspectives and policy implications. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Mehdi
    • 1
  • Divya Chaudhry
    • 1
  • Priyanka Tomar
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations