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Heavy Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Radioactive Materials, Xenobiotic, Pesticides, Hazardous Chemicals and Dyes Bioremediation

  • Ihsan Flayyih Hasan AI-Jawhari
Chapter

Abstract

Rapid growth, development and coveted desire to progress at any cost, man has produced various problems in the form of toxic pollutants in the ecosystem. Industrialization and modernization in the last few decades resulted in imbalance of the ecosystem by adding different chemical compounds, such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), radioactive materials, xenobiotic, pesticides, hazardous chemicals and dyes. These compounds badly influenced the biological systems of plants, animals, microorganisms and human being. The high toxicity of some of these polluted compounds also negatively influence the normal function of the body. On the other hand, the presence of toxicants in chemical fertilizers, pesticides and sewage also contaminate the soil and potable water. There are several approaches which can solve the problem to certain extent and these are physical and chemical methods. These methods have some limitations, and not therefore, not that successful, on the other hand are not cost effective and also causes interference with natural water bodies’ composition. Moreover, these physico-chemical methods also leads to different toxins and other compounds in the ecosystem. In spite of this, biological methods are now a days available which are eco-friendly and to some extent completely mineralize the organic pollutants. Another positive aspects of the these methods are that they are cost effective and does not generate toxic wastes. These biological approaches employs the potential microorganisms such as bacteria, algae and fungi under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The use of microbial sources has several advantages mentioned above and have and long term applicability.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ihsan Flayyih Hasan AI-Jawhari
    • 1
  1. 1.Marshes Research CentreThi-qar UniversityNasiriyahIraq

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