Modeling and Analysis of Material Flow Toward a Better E-Waste Recycling System in Malaysia
- 363 Downloads
Developing countries tend to have electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) issues, such as illegal importation and exportation of e-waste, improper recycling of e-waste, and hoarding of e-waste, leading to scarcity of data on e-waste. Without e-waste data, it is almost impossible to establish any effective measure for emerging e-waste problems. This paper aims to clarify the e-waste flow in Malaysia by making an e-waste flow model and estimating scarce e-waste data. The paper also proposes ideas on how to increase the amount of e-waste flowing into recycling facilities on the basis of the e-waste flow model. Material flow analysis is implemented to clarify and to fully understand how e-waste flows in Malaysia, on a national scale. Extrapolation, scale-up calculation, and scenario analysis are used to derive and estimate scarce data from prior studies, which are needed in the e-waste flow model. This paper also compares e-waste data between the industrial sector and the household sector. The results show that e-waste management in Malaysia’s household sector is still below par, with most of the e-waste generated from that sector going to places other than recycling facilities. With the household sector as the main target of the idea proposal, the paper identifies that “scrap” and “hoarding” are the main problems in the current e-waste management system. Thus, an idea is proposed for these respective issues in order to increase the amount of e-waste that flows to “recycling” by reducing the amount of e-waste that flows to “scrap” and “hoarding.”
KeywordsE-waste Material flow Recycling
- 2.E-wasteguide.info. Valuable substances in e-waste. http://ewasteguide.info/valuable_materials_in_e_waste. Accessed January 2017.
- 3.Vidal J. Toxic ‘e-waste’ dumped in poor nations, says United Nations. The Guardian. 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/dec/14/toxic-ewaste-illegal-dumping-developing-countries. Accessed January 2017.
- 4.Official Portal of Department of Environment Malaysia. Environmental quality (scheduled wastes) regulations. 2005. https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Environmental_Quality_Scheduled_Wastes_Regulations_2005_-_P.U.A_294-2005.pdf. Accessed January 2017.
- 6.E-Marketing. Senheng “e-Waste alam alliance recycling program” launching ceremony. 2013. http://www.senheng.com.my/updates/tag/recycle/. Accessed January 2017.
- 9.Sustainable System Design Institute (SSDI), Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd. Malaysia: the project for model development for e-waste collection, segregation and transportation from households for recycling final report. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). 2013. https://www.open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12111878_01.pdf.Google Scholar
- 11.Official Portal of Department of Environment. List of scheduled waste contractors in Malaysia. 2012. https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/e-waste-full2.pdf. Accessed January 2017.
- 12.Official Portal of Department of Environment. List of scheduled waste contractors in Malaysia. 2012. https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/E-Waste-Partial.pdf. Accessed January 2017.
- 13.Babington J, Siwar C, Fariz A, Ara R. Bridging the gaps: an e-waste management and recycling assessment of material recycling facilities in Selangor and Penang. Int J Environ Sci. 2010;1:3.Google Scholar