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Aldose Reductase Inhibitors in the Functional Foods: Regulation of Diabetic Complications

  • Arpita Devi
  • Aramati B. M. Reddy
  • Umesh C. S. Yadav
Chapter

Abstract

Aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the precipitation of diabetic complications including the microangiopathy such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy as well as macroangiopathy such as cardiovascular disease in diabetes patients. A number of synthetic inhibitors of AR have been tested in laboratories as well as in the clinical settings but with limited success due to their low bioavailability and safety concerns. Since the epidemiological studies suggest the enormous increase in incidence of diabetes globally, there is urgent need for potent yet safe AR inhibitors. The molecules derived from plants usually show greater biocompatibility and lack toxicity and other harmful side effects due to their coevolution with human and also because they have been the part of the local diet regimen for the millennia. Several researchers have reported that crude extracts as well as pure molecules derived from natural sources such as plants and various plant parts possess excellent AR inhibitory activity. Such compounds have shown remarkable inhibition of elevated AR activity during diabetic condition. Although the chemical nature of the plant extracts is of mixed type, the pure molecules isolated from plants are of varied chemical nature such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins, coumarins, terpenoids, etc. In this chapter the different plant-derived extracts and compounds have been discussed that have been shown to have potential AR inhibition activity and may qualify to be considered as the functional food for prevention of diabetes and diabetic complications.

Keywords

Aldose reductase Diabetes Functional food AR inhibitors Diabetic complications Herbal compounds Phytochemicals 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Arpita Devi acknowledges financial support from CSIR for her doctoral studies. Dr. ABM Reddy acknowledges UoH-UPE-II, DBT-RGYI and DBT-RNAi, DAE-BRNS for funding. Dr. Umesh C. S. Yadav acknowledges the award of Ramanujan Fellowship and financial support from Department of Science and Technology (DST), SERB Government of India, and GSBTM, Government of Gujarat.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arpita Devi
    • 1
  • Aramati B. M. Reddy
    • 1
  • Umesh C. S. Yadav
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Animal Biology, School of Life SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Metabolic Disorder & Inflammatory Pathologies Laboratory, School of Life SciencesCentral University of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

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