Advertisement

Importance of Probiotics in Human Health

  • Dibyendu Banerjee
  • Tushar Jain
  • Sagarika Bose
  • Vivek Bhosale
Chapter

Abstract

Probiotics are live microorganisms like bacteria and yeast that are consumed along with food for various health benefits. These microorganisms play a very important role not only in intestinal microbial balance but also in maintaining health protection of the host organism against harmful microbiota. Probiotic term means “for life.” The sale of these products has increased worldwide, and sale figures are estimated to cross $45B by the year 2018 due to its wide range of health profits. Humans have used probiotics for decades and centuries involuntarily. Food additives like fermented milk and yogurt have been a major part in regular meals and diet in several parts of the world. Nowadays, probiotics are the most important prescription by gastrointestinal physicians’ because of its potential role in curing certain diseases for which treatment options are limited. The use of probiotics that were initially restricted for antibiotic-associated diarrhea now extends as powerful anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory factors. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most important probiotic groups; however, the probiotic potential of Pediococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, and yeast is also well known. Probiotics are not only used as food to enhance health but also to cure specific gastrointestinal conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and infectious diarrhea (caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites). They also play an important role in improving skin conditions like eczema. Urinary and vaginal health, allergy prevention, colds, and oral health can be treated with probiotics. This chapter throws light on different probiotics, their health benefits, and regulatory or safety issues linked with their usage.

Keywords

Probiotics Functional food Gut microbiome Probiotic bacteria Gut health 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge CSIR-CDRI for infrastructure and other support necessary for writing the book chapter. TJ would like to thank CSIR for his junior and senior research fellowships. The manuscript bears the CDRI communication number 9484.

References

  1. 1.
    Ozen M, Dinleyici EC (2015) The history of probiotics: the untold story. Benefic Microbes 6(2):159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gogineni VK et al (2013) Probiotics: history and evolution. J Anc Dis Prev Remedies.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-8731.1000107
  3. 3.
    Muller M (1900) Sacred books of the east. The Colonial Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breasted J (1906) Ancient records of Egypt. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Langdon A, Crook N, Dantas G (2016) The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation. Genome Med 8(1):39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grice EA, Segre JA (2012) The human microbiome: our second genome. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 13:151–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fijan S (2014) Microorganisms with claimed probiotic properties: an overview of recent literature. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(5):4745–4767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gill HS, Guarner F (2004) Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective. Postgrad Med J 80(947):516–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rodriguez JM et al (2015) The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life. Microb Ecol Health Dis 26:26050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang I et al (2016) The infant microbiome: implications for infant health and neurocognitive development. Nurs Res 65(1):76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergonzelli GE et al (2005) Probiotics as a treatment strategy for gastrointestinal diseases? Digestion 72(1):57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khailova L et al (2013) Probiotic administration reduces mortality and improves intestinal epithelial homeostasis in experimental sepsis. Anesthesiology 119(1):166–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prakash S et al (2014) Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergies, with an emphasis on mode of delivery and mechanism of action. Curr Pharm Des 20(6):1025–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ooi LG, Liong MT (2010) Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings. Int J Mol Sci 11(6):2499–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar R, Dhanda S (2017) Mechanistic insight of probiotics derived anticancer pharmaceuticals: a road forward for cancer therapeutics. Nutr Cancer 69:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sinagra E et al (2013) Probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases: state-of-the-art and new insights. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 27(4):919–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaukat A et al (2010) Systematic review: effective management strategies for lactose intolerance. Ann Intern Med 152(12):797–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown AC, Valiere A (2004) Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy. Nutr Clin Care 7(2):56–68PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liaskovskii TM, Podgorskii VS (2005) Assessment of probiotics according to the international organizations (FAO/WHO). Mikrobiol Z 67(6):104–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soccol CR et al (2010) The potential of probiotics: a review. Food Technol Biotechnol 48(4):413–434Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gomes AM, Malcata FX (1999) Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends Food Sci Technol 10(4):139–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dembele T, Obdrzalek V, Votava M (1998) Inhibition of bacterial pathogens by lactobacilli. Zentralbl Bakteriol 288(3):395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gibson GR et al (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108(4):975–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bermudez-Brito M et al (2012) Probiotic mechanisms of action. Ann Nutr Metab 61(2):160–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ouwehand AC (2016) A review of dose-responses of probiotics in human studies. Benefic Microbes 8:1–10Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ritchie ML, Romanuk TN (2012) A meta-analysis of probiotic efficacy for gastrointestinal diseases. PLoS One 7(4):e34938. Epub 2012 Apr 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cruchet S et al (2015) The use of probiotics in pediatric gastroenterology: a review of the literature and recommendations by Latin-American experts. Paediatr Drugs 17(3):199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldenberg SD (2016) Faecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and beyond: risks and regulation. J Hosp Infect 92(2):115–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McFarland LV (2015) Deciphering meta-analytic results: a mini-review of probiotics for the prevention of paediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infections. Benefic Microbes 6(2):189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aceti A et al (2015) Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ital J Pediatr 41:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Savaiano DA (2014) Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance. Am J Clin Nutr 99(5 Suppl):1251s–1255sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Korada SK et al (2016) Can probiotics cure inflammatory bowel diseases? Curr Pharm Des 22(7):904–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Drouault-Holowacz S et al (2008) A double blind randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 32(2):147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Faruqui AA, Jamaiwar B, Sharma B (2017) Combination of bulk laxative along with probiotics and prebiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a safe & effective option. Asian J Med Sci 8(1):6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vaishnavi C (2013) Translocation of gut flora and its role in sepsis. Indian J Med Microbiol 31(4):334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Slattery J, MacFabe DF, Frye RE (2016) The significance of the enteric microbiome on the development of childhood disease: a review of prebiotic and probiotic therapies in disorders of childhood. Clin Med Insights Pediatr 10:91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lim IS, Lee HS, Kim WY (2009) The effect of lactic acid bacteria isolates on the urinary tract pathogens to infants in vitro. J Korean Med Sci 24(Suppl):S57–S62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Saber A et al (2017) Cellular and molecular effects of yeast probiotics on cancer. Crit Rev Microbiol 43(1):96–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chong ES (2014) A potential role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention: review of possible mechanisms of action. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 30(2):351–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liong MT (2008) Roles of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer prevention: postulated mechanisms and in-vivo evidence. Int J Mol Sci 9(5):854–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pericleous M, Mandair D, Caplin ME (2013) Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Oncol 4(4):409–423PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Link-Amster H et al (1994) Modulation of a specific humoral immune response and changes in intestinal flora mediated through fermented milk intake. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 10(1):55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sgouras DN, Trang TT, Yamaoka Y (2015) Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter 20(Suppl 1):8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sgouras D et al (2004) In vitro and In vivo inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(1):518–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kumar M et al (2012) Cholesterol-lowering probiotics as potential biotherapeutics for metabolic diseases. Exp Diabetes Res 2012:902917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lye HS et al (2009) The improvement of hypertension by probiotics: effects on cholesterol, diabetes, renin, and phytoestrogens. Int J Mol Sci 10(9):3755–3775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yarandi SS et al (2016) Modulatory effects of gut microbiota on the central nervous system: how gut could play a role in neuropsychiatric health and diseases. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 22(2):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rao AV et al (2009) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathog 1(1):6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Degnan FH (2008) The US Food and Drug Administration and probiotics: regulatory categorization. Clin Infect Dis 46(Suppl 2): S133–S136; discussion S144-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    ICMR-DBT guidelines for evaluation of probiotics in food (2011) Indian J Med Res 134:22–25Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Market RA (2016) Probiotics Market by Ingredient (Bacteria, Yeast), Application (Food & Beverages, Dietary Supplements, Animal Feed), Function (Regular, Preventative Healthcare, Therapeutic) – Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2014 – 2022 Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hoffman FA et al (2008) Executive summary: scientific and regulatory challenges of development of probiotics as foods and drugs. Clin Infect Dis 46(Suppl 2):S53–S57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Flynn A (2012) Scientific substantiation of health claims in the EU. Proc Nutr Soc 71(1):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sreeja V, Prajapati JB (2013) Probiotic formulations: application and status as pharmaceuticals—a review. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 5(2):81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Redman MG, Ward EJ, Phillips RS (2014) The efficacy and safety of probiotics in people with cancer: a systematic review. Ann Oncol 25(10):1919–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goldenberg JZ et al (2015) Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:Cd004827Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lv Z et al (2015) Efficacy and safety of probiotics as adjuvant agents for Helicobacter pylori infection: a meta-analysis. Exp Ther Med 9(3):707–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yan Q, Li X, Feng B (2015) The efficacy and safety of probiotics intervention in preventing conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the Probiotics Prevention Diabetes Programme (PPDP). BMC Endocr Disord 15:74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Xu M et al (2015) The efficacy and safety of the probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Infantile Colic: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 10(10):e0141445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sanders ME, Levy DD (2011) The science and regulations of probiotic food and supplement product labeling. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1219(Suppl 1):E1–e23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hemarajata P, Versalovic J (2013) Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 6(1):39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Didari T et al (2014) A systematic review of the safety of probiotics. Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(2):227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dibyendu Banerjee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tushar Jain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sagarika Bose
    • 1
  • Vivek Bhosale
    • 3
    • 2
  1. 1.Molecular and Structural Biology DivisionCSIR-Central Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)ChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineCSIR-Central Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations