Nanotechnology in the Food Industry: Perspectives and Prospects

  • Himanshu Sukhpal
  • Stuti Awasthy
  • Indira P. SarethyEmail author


In the present scenario, it has been estimated that out of the 7 billion people inhabiting the Earth, 0.9 billion face inadequate food supply (food insecurity) and 2 billion are malnourished, out of which over 800 million suffer from severe malnutrition and 36 million more die from lack of food. The projected rise in population curves indicates that by the year 2020, the Earth will be populated by 8 billion people and by 2050, the global population is expected to hit 9.6 billion. Wastage of food in various forms (lack of efficient storage methods, delayed transportation to market, pathogen and pest attacks, natural calamities, poor bioavailability, short shelf life) leads to ineffective utilization of the produced food. While various strategies exist to counter these issues, it is postulated that nanotechnology can also play a significant role in mitigating many of the contributing factors. Food supplements can be incorporated in the form of nanoparticles to enhance nutritional value or to improve the taste, texture and consistency attributes of the food. Nano-textured foodstuffs enable reduction of fat usage thereby contributing to healthier food. Nanotechnology has application in packaging food materials as it can provide resistance to physically stressful conditions, from agents that cause degradation of the packaging material and from pathogens, and can also facilitate in increasing the shelf life of the food items. Silver and gold nanoparticles in biosensor-incorporated packaging material can detect spoilage or contamination of food. In agriculture, nano-particulate fertilizers can be more effective with their increased surface area. Nano-pesticides can be enabled for controlled release under desired conditions. Despite these promising aspects, concerns remain about toxicity of nanoparticles inside the body. Nevertheless, rapid advances have resulted in many countries designing specific regulations focusing on nanotechnology aspects.


Nanopesticide Nanofertilizer Smart packaging Functional food Nano-textured food Nanoencapsulation 


  1. 1.
    Acosta E (2009) Bioavailability of nanoparticles in nutrient and nutraceutical delivery. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 14(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambrosi A, Airo F, Merkoci A (2010) Enhanced gold nanoparticle based ELISA for a breast cancer biomarker. Anal Chem 82(3):1151–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amini SM, Kharrazi S, Hadizadeh M, Fateh M, Saber R (2013) Effect of gold nanoparticles on photodynamic efficiency of 5-aminolevolenic acid photosensitiser in epidermal carcinoma cell line: an in vitro study. IET Nanobiotechnol 7(4):151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aresta A, Calvano CD, Trapani A, Cellamare S, Zambonin CG, Giglio ED (2013) Development and analytical characterization of vitamin (s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications. J Nanopart Res 15(4):1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arrieta MP, Peltzer MA, López J, del Carmen Garrigós M, Valente AJ, Jiménez A (2014) Functional properties of sodium and calcium caseinate antimicrobial active films containing carvacrol. J Food Eng 121:94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Avella M, De Vlieger JJ, Errico ME, Fischer S, Vacca P, Volpe MG (2005) Biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposite films for food packaging applications. Food Chem 93(3):467–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azeredo H, Mattoso LHC, Wood D, Williams TG, Avena-Bustillos RJ, McHugh TH (2009) Nanocomposite edible films from mango puree reinforced with cellulose nanofibers. J Food Sci 74(5):N31–N35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Azeredo H, Mattoso LHC, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Munford ML, Wood D, McHugh TH (2010) Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan composite films as affected by nanofiller loading and plasticizer content. J Food Sci 75(1):N1–N7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Biji KB, Ravishankar CN, Mohan CO, Gopal TS (2015) Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review. J Food Sci Technol 52(10):6125–6135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biscarat J, Charmette C, Sanchez J, Pochat-Bohatier C (2015) Development of a new family of food packaging bioplastics from cross-linked gelatin based films. Can J Chem Eng 93(2):176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borm PJ, Kreyling W (2004) Toxicological hazards of inhaled nanoparticles—potential implications for drug delivery. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 4(5):521–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Braydich-Stolle LK, Schaeublin NM, Murdock RC, Jiang J, Biswas P, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM (2009) Crystal structure mediates mode of cell death in TiO2 nanotoxicity. J Nanopart Res 11(6):1361–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bülbül G, Hayat A, Andreescu S (2015) Portable nanoparticle-based sensors for food safety assessment. Sensors (Basel) 15(12):30736–30758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Charpentier PA, Burgess K, Wang L, Chowdhury RR, Lotus AF, Moula G (2012) Nano-TiO2/polyurethane composites for antibacterial and self-cleaning coatings. Nanotechnology 23(42):425606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chaudhry Q, Castle L (2011) Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Trends Food Sci Technol 22(11):595–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chu W (2017) Special delivery: nano’s nutrient gift presents huge potential. Is nanotechnology finally walking the talk when it comes to nutrient enhancement in food and supplements? Accessed on 25 Aug 2017
  17. 17.
    Cruz-Romero MC, Murphy T, Morris M, Cummins E, Kerry JP (2013) Antimicrobial activity of chitosan, organic acids and nano-sized solubilisates for potential use in smart antimicrobially-active packaging for potential food applications. Food Control 34(2):393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De A, Bose R, Kumar A, Mozumdar S (2014) Targeted delivery of pesticides using biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Springer Briefs in Molecular Science. Springer, New Delhi. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dutta PK, Tripathi S, Mehrotra GK, Dutta J (2009) Perspectives for chitosan based antimicrobial films in food applications. Food Chem 114(4):1173–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fabrega J, Fawcett SR, Renshaw JC, Lead JR (2009) Silver nanoparticle impact on bacterial growth: effect of pH concentration and organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 43(19):7285–7290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Falkner R, Jaspers N (2012) Regulating nanotechnologies: risk, uncertainty and the global governance gap. Global Environ Politics 12(1):30–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Farhoodi M (2016) Nanocomposite materials for food packaging applications: characterization and safety evaluation. Food Eng Rev 8(1):35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Feder BJ (2004) Study raises concerns about carbon particles. New York Times, p 153Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Food and Agriculture Organization (2012) FAO Statistical Yearbook 2012.
  26. 26.
    Food and Agriculture Organization (2015) International Fund for Agricultural Development, World Food Program. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition”. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Food and Agriculture Organization (2016) – Rome, 2016, World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2019 summary reportGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gholami-Ahangaran M, Zia-Jahromi N (2014) Effect of nanosilver on blood parameters in chickens having aflatoxicosis. Toxicol Ind Health 30(2):192–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gibbs BF, Kermasha S, Alli I, Mulligan CN (1999) Encapsulation in the food industry: a review. Int J Food Sci Nutr 50(3):213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greaves S, Faunce L, Cocco F (2017) Accessed on 25 August 2017
  31. 31.
    Gutiérrez FJ, Mussons ML, Gatón P and Rojo R (2012) Nanotechnology and food industry, scientific, health and social aspects of the food industry. Dr. Benjamin Valdez (Ed.). InTech. Available from: Accessed on 25 August 2017Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Helmke BP, Minerick AR (2006) Designing a nano-interface in a microfluidic chip to probe living cells: challenges and perspectives. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(17):6419–6424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Honarvar Z, Hadian Z, Mashayekh M (2016) Nanocomposites in food packaging applications and their risk assessment for health. Electron Physician 8(6):2531–2538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hone DC, Walker PI, Evans-Gowing R, FitzGerald S, Beeby A, Chambrier I, Cook MJ, Russell DA (2002) Generation of cytotoxic singlet oxygen via phthalocyanine-stabilized gold nanoparticles: a potential delivery vehicle for photodynamic therapy. Langmuir 18(8):2985–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hosseini SF, Rezaei M, Zandi M, Farahmandghavi F (2015) Fabrication of bio-nanocomposite films based on fish gelatin reinforced with chitosan nanoparticles. Food Hydrocoll 44:172–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Accessed on 25 August 2017
  38. 38. Accessed on 25 August 2017
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Accessed on 25 August 2017
  42. 42.
    Hwang LS, Yeh AI (2010) Applying nanotechnology in food in Taiwan. International conference on food applications of nanoscale ScienceGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Inbaraj BS, Chen BH (2016) Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products. J Food Drug Anal 24(1):15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kajihara Y, Murakami M, Imagawa T, Otsuguro K, Ito S, Ohta T (2010) Histamine potentiates acid-induced responses mediating transient receptor potential V1 in mouse primary sensory neurons. Neuroscience 166(1):292–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kanmani P, Rhim JW (2014) Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of gelatin based active nanocomposite films containing AgNPs and nanoclay. Food Hydrocoll 35:644–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kanmani P, Rhim JW (2014) Physicochemical properties of gelatin/silver nanoparticle antimicrobial composite films. Food Chem 148:162–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kyung OY, Grabinski CM, Schrand AM, Murdock RC, Wang W, Gu B, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM (2009) Toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles in mouse keratinocytes. J Nanopart Res 11(1):15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lang T, Heasman M (2015) Food wars: the global battle for mouths, minds and markets. Routledge, AbingdonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee J, Park EY, Lee J (2014) Non-toxic nanoparticles from phytochemicals: preparation and biomedical application. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37(6):983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Leonard P, Hearty S, Brennan J, Dunne L, Quinn J, Chakraborty T, O’Kennedy R (2003) Advances in biosensors for detection of pathogens in food and water. Enzyme Microb Technol 32(1):3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li ZZ, Xu SA, Wen LX, Liu F, Liu AQ, Wang Q, Sun HY, Yu W, Chen JF (2006) Controlled release of avermectin from porous hollow silica nanoparticles: influence of shell thickness on loading efficiency, UV-shielding property and release. J Control Release 111(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lipinski B, Hanson C, Lomax J, Kitinoja L, Waite R, Searchinger T (2013) Reducing food loss and waste. World Resources Institute Working Paper JuneGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Loher S, Schneider OD, Maienfisch T, Bokorny S, Stark WJ (2008) Microorganism-triggered release of silver nanoparticles from biodegradable oxide carriers allows preparation of self-sterilizing polymer surfaces. Small 4(6):824–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mahler GJ, Esch MB, Tako E, Southard TL, Archer SD, Glahn RP, Shuler ML (2012) Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles affects iron absorption. Nat Nanotechnol 7(4):264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Malhotra B, Keshwani A, Kharkwal H (2015) Natural polymer based cling films for food packaging. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 7:10–18Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marsh K, Bugusu B (2007) Food packaging—roles materials and Environ issues. J food Sci 72(3):R39–R55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Martínez-Fernández D, Barroso D, Komárek M (2016) Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(2):1732–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Martirosyan A, Schneider YJ (2014) Engineered nanomaterials in food: implications for food safety and consumer health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(6):5720–5750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McClements DJ, Decker EA (2000) Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: impact of molecular environment on chemical reactions in heterogeneous food systems. J Food Sci 65(8):1270–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mills E, Roth RJ Jr, Lecomte E (2006) Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change: a growing challenge for the United States. J Insur Regul 25(2):109Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miranda OR, Li X, Garcia-Gonzalez L, Zhu ZJ, Yan B, Bunz UH, Rotello VM (2011) Colorimetric bacteria sensing using a supramolecular enzyme–nanoparticle biosensor. J Am Chem Soc 133(25):9650–9653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Monge M, Moreno-Arribas MV (2016) Applications of nanotechnology in wine production and quality and safety control. In: Wine safety, consumer preference, and human health. Springer, Berlin, pp 51–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morones JR, Elechiguerra JL, Camacho A, Holt K, Kouri JB, Ramírez JT, Yacaman MJ (2005) The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 16(10):2346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mozafari RM, Johnson C, Hatziantoniou S, Demetzos C (2008) Nanoliposomes and their applications in food nanotechnology. J Lipos Res 18(4):309–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Oberdörster G (2000) Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Oberdörster G (2010) Safety assessment for nanotechnology and nanomedicine: concepts of nanotoxicology. J Internal Med 267(1):89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ornatska M, Sharpe E, Andreescu D, Andreescu S (2011) Paper bioassay based on ceria nanoparticles as colorimetric probes. Anal Chem 83(11):4273–4280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Osmond-McLeod MJ, Oytam Y, Osmond RIW, Sobhanmanesh F, McCall MJ (2014) Surface coatings protect against the in vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human hepatic stellate cells. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 5:232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ozimek L, Pospiech E, Narine S (2010) Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing. Acta Sci Pol Technol Alimentaria 9(4):401–412Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pérez-López B, Merkoçi A (2011) Nanomaterials based biosensors for food analysis applications. Trends Food Sci Technol 22(11):625–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Phillips RL, Miranda OR, You CC, Rotello VM, Bunz UH (2008) Rapid and efficient identification of bacteria using gold-nanoparticle–poly (para-phenyleneethynylene) constructs. Angew Chem Int Ed 47(14):2590–2594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Prabhu S, Poulose EK (2012) Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects. Int Nano Lett 2(1):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Quintanilla-Carvajal MX, Camacho-Dıaz BH, Meraz-Torres LS, Chanona-Perez JJ, Alamilla-Beltran L, Gutierrez-Lopez GF (2009) Nanoencapsulation: a new trend in food engineering processing. Food Eng Rev 2(1):39–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Radi RBJS, Beckman JS, Bush KM, Freeman BA (1991) Peroxynitrite oxidation of sulfhydryls. The cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide. J Biol Chem 266(7):4244–4250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Raja P, Huynh M and Khabashesku VN (2015) Safe handling and disposal of nanostructured materials. Offshore Technology Conference MayGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ramachandraiah K, Han SG, Chin KB (2015) Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications—a review. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 28(2):290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ramon-Marquez T, Medina-Castillo AL, Fernandez-Gutierrez A, Fernandez-Sanchez JF (2016) Novel optical sensing film based on a functional nonwoven nanofibre mat for an easy, fast highly selective sensitive detection of tryptamine in beer. Biosens Bioelectron 79:600–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ramos M, Valdés A, Beltrán A, Garrigós MC (2016) Gelatin-based films and coatings for food packaging applications. Coatings 6: 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ren G, Hu D, Cheng EW, Vargas-Reus MA, Reip P, Allaker RP (2009) Characterisation of copper oxide nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications. Int J Antimicrob Agents 33(6):587–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Saha B, Evers TH, Prins MW (2014) How antibody surface coverage on nanoparticles determines the activity and kinetics of antigen capturing for biosensing. Anal Chem 86(16):8158–8166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sarkar B, Bhattacharjee S, Daware A, Tribedi P, Krishnani KK, Minhas PS (2015) Selenium nanoparticles for stress-resilient fish and livestock. Nanoscale Res Lett 10(1):371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schulte PA, Salamanca-Buentello F (2007) Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace. Ciên Saúde Colet 12(5):1319–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sekhon BS (2010) Food nanotechnology–an overview. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 3(1):1–15PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Selim NA, Radwan NL, Youssef SF, Eldin TAS, Elwafa SA (2015) Effect of inclusion inorganic, organic or nano selenium forms in broiler diets on: 2-Physiological, immunological and toxicity statuses of broiler chicks. Int J Poult Sci 14(3):144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shankar S, Teng X, Li G, Rhim JW (2015) Preparation characterization, and antimicrobial activity of gelatin/ZnO nanocomposite films. Food Hydrocoll 45:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sharpe E, Frasco T, Andreescu D, Andreescu S (2013) Portable ceria nanoparticle-based assay for rapid detection of food antioxidants (NanoCerac). Analyst 138(1):249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sherry LJ, Jin R, Mirkin CA, Schatz GC, Van Duyne RP (2006) Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms. Nano Lett 6(9):2060–2065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Shi L, Zhao Y, Zhang X, Su H, Tan T (2008) Antibacterial and anti-mildew behavior of chitosan/nano-TiO2 composite emulsion. Korean J Chem Eng 25(6):1434–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shin SW, Song IH, Um SH (2015) Role of physicochemical properties in nanoparticle toxicity. Nanomaterials 5(3):1351–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Singh H (2016) Nanotechnology applications in functional foods; opportunities and challenges. Prev Nutr Food Sci 21(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sinha VK, Vinay A, Bhinge JR (2008) Nanocochleates: a novel drug delivery technology. Pharmainfo Net 6(5):28Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Song J, Wu F, Wan Y, Ma L (2015) Colorimetric detection of melamine in pretreated milk using silver nanoparticles functionalized with sulfanilic acid. Food Control 50:356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Storhoff JJ, Lazarides AA, Mucic RC, Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL, Schatz GC (2000) What controls the optical properties of DNA-linked gold Nanopart assemblies? J Am Chem Soc 122(19):4640–4650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Thangavel G, Thiruvengadam S (2014) Nanotechnology in food industry – a review. Int J Chem Tech Res 16(9):4096–4101Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tsukamoto K, Wakayama J and Sugiyama S (2010) Nanobiotechnology approach for food and food related fields. Poster presented at the International Conference on Food Applications of Nanoscale Science (ICOFANS), Tokyo, Japan, pp 9–11Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Valdés MG, González ACV, Calzón JAG, Díaz-García ME (2009) Analytical nanotechnology for food analysis. Microchim Acta 166(1-2):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vidhyalakshmi R, Bhakyaraj R, Subhasree RS (2009) Encapsulation “the future of probiotics”-a review. Adv Biol Res 3(3-4):96–103Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vilela D, González MC, Escarpa A (2012) Sensing colorimetric approaches based on gold and silver nanoparticles aggregation: chemical creativity behind the assay A review. Anal Chim Acta 751:24–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vishwakarma V, Samal SS, Manoharan N (2010) Safety and risk associated with nanoparticles-a review. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 9(05):455Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wang Y, Alocilja EC (2015) Gold nanoparticle-labeled biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens. J Biol Eng 9(1):16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wang S, Su R, Nie S, Sun M, Zhang J, Wu D, Moustaid-Moussa N (2014) Application of nanotechnology in improving bioavailability and bioactivity of diet-derived phytochemicals. J Nutr Biochem 25(4):363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wei H, Chen C, Han B, Wang E (2008) Enzyme colorimetric assay using unmodified silver nanoparticles. Anal Chem 80(18):7051–7055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Weiss J, Takhistov P, McClements DJ (2006) Functional materials in food nanotechnology. J Food Sci 71(9):R107–R116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wickramasinghe SN, Gardner B, Barden G (1987) Circulating cytotoxic protein generated after ethanol consumption: identification and mechanism of reaction with cells. Lancet 330(8551):122–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Xia S, Xu S, Zhang X (2006) Optimization in the preparation of coenzyme Q10 nanoliposomes. J Agric Food Chem 54(17):6358–6366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Xiong D, Li H (2008) Colorimetric detection of pesticides based on calixarene modified silver nanoparticles in water. Nanotechnology 19(46):465502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Xiu ZM, Zhang QB, Puppala HL, Colvin VL, Alvarez PJ (2012) Negligible particle-specific antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles. Nano Lett 12(8):4271–4275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Xun W, Shi L, Yue W, Zhang C, Ren Y and Liu Q (2012) Effect of high-dose nano-selenium and selenium–yeast on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and purine derivatives in sheep. Biol Trace Elem Res 150(1–3): 130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yam KL, Takhistov PT, Miltz J (2005) Intelligent packaging: concepts and applications. J Food Sci 70(1):R1–R10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yu H, Huang Y, Huang Q (2009) Synthesis and characterization of novel antimicrobial emulsifiers from ε-polylysine. J Agric food Chem 58(2):1290–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yu H and Huang Q (2010) Enhanced in vitro anti-cancer activity of curcumin encapsulated in hydrophobically modified starch. Food Chem, 119(2):669-674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yuan CW, Huang JT, Chen CC, Tang PC, Huang JW, Lin JJ, Huang SY, Chen SE (2017) Evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of exfoliated silicate nanoclays as a feed additive for fumonisin detoxification. J Agric Food Chem 65(31):6564–6571CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Himanshu Sukhpal
    • 1
  • Stuti Awasthy
    • 1
  • Indira P. Sarethy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyJaypee Institute of Information TechnologyNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations