Top-Down Revolutions. Negative and Positive Autonomy

  • Krzysztof Nawratek


This chapter discusses the nature of autonomy, arguing that there are two kinds of autonomy—the positive, defined as a surplus of freedom and agency, and the negative, defined as freedom in the creative interpretation of conditions and expectations imposed by the hegemonic order. In this chapter, I discuss an urban ontology based on a multiplicity of actors and constantly changing hierarchies, and the tension between the positive and negative autonomy of each actor engaged in urban development.


Autonomy Special Autonomous Zones China Hierarchy Xenophobic localism 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krzysztof Nawratek
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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