Direction of Digital IT and Enterprise Architecture

  • Yoshimasa MasudaEmail author
  • Murlikrishna Viswanathan


This chapter explains the direction of Digital IT such as Cloud/Mobile IT, Big Data, and Internet of Things. This chapter introduces and briefs EA frameworks such as TOGAF, FEAF, DoDAF, MODAF, Adaptive EA, and EA3 Cube framework and analyzes the selected EA frameworks from standpoints of Cloud/Mobile IT integration, as well. Furthermore, this chapter briefs Agile Enterprise Architecture, introduces the primary scaling agile frameworks, and compares them. In the latter of this chapter, we investigated problems in Digital Transformation and related enterprise architecture, and we show solutions to cope with these problems in Digital Transformation and enterprise architecture. In later chapters, we will show the strategic architecture framework aligned with Digital IT strategies on the basis of the above solutions.


Digital IT Cloud computing Mobile IT Big data Internet of Things EA frameworks 


  1. Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J. (2002). Agile software development methods: review and analysis (VTT Technical Report, Technical Report) (Definite version).Google Scholar
  2. Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J. (2017). Agile software development methods: review and analysis (VTT Technical Report, Technical Report) (Definite version).Google Scholar
  3. Alwadain, A., Fielt, E., Korthaus, A., & Rosemann, M. (2014). A comparative analysis of the integration of SOA elements in widely-used enterprise architecture frameworks. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies, 9(2), 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alwadain, A., Korthaus, A., Fielt, E., & Rosemann, M. (2010). Integrating SOA into an enterprise architecture: A comparative analysis of alternative approaches. In The Fifth IFIP International Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems.Google Scholar
  5. Alzoubi, Y. I., Gill, A. Q., Ai-Ani, A. (2015). Distributed agile development communication: an agile architecture driven framework. Journal of Software, 10(6), 681–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambler, S., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined agile delivery: A practitioner’s guide to agile software delivery in the enterprise. IBM Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ambler, S., & Lines, M. (2013). Going beyond scrum disciplined agile delivery (Disciplined Agile Consortium, Technical Report).Google Scholar
  8. Ambler, S., & Lines, M. (2014). Scaling agile software development: Disciplined agility at scale (Disciplined Agile Consortium, Technical Report).Google Scholar
  9. Ambler, S., & Lines, M. (2016). The disciplined agile process decision framework. In International Conference on Software Quality (pp. 3–14). Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Ambler, S., & Lines, M. (2016). Scaling agile software development tactically: Disciplined agile delivery at scale (Disciplined Agile Consortium, Technical Report).Google Scholar
  11. Ngu, A. H., Gutierrez, M., Metsis, V., Nepal, S., & Sheng, Q. Z. (2017). IoT middleware: A survey on issues and enabling technologies. IEEE Internet Things Journal, 4(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Agile Business Consortium. (2014). The DSDM agile project framework handbook. Agile Business Consortium.Google Scholar
  13. Bernard, S. (2006). Using enterprise architecture to integrate strategic, business, and technology planning. Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Google Scholar
  14. Bernard, S. (2012). An introduction to enterprise architecture (3rd ed.). Bloomington, IL: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978–1-4772-5800-2 (sc), 978-1-4772-5801-9 (e).Google Scholar
  15. Boardman, S., & KPN. (2015). Open group snapshot—open platform 3.0™. The Open Group.Google Scholar
  16. Buckl, S., Ernst, A. M., Matthes, F., Ramacher, R., & Schweda, C. M. (2009). Using enterprise architecture management patterns to complement TOGAF. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (pp. 34–41).
  17. Buckl, S., Matthes, F., Monahov, I., Roth, S., Schulz, C., & Schweda, C. M. (2011). Towards an agile design of the enterprise architecture management function. In Proceedings of Computing Conference Workshops 15th IEEE International the Enterprise Distributed Object.Google Scholar
  18. Buckl, S., Matthes, F., Schulz, C., & Schweda, C. M. (2010). Exemplifying a framework for interrelating enterprise architecture concerns. In M. A. Sicilia, C. Kop & F. Sartori (Eds.), Ontology, conceptualization and epistemology for information systems, software engineering and service science (Vol. 62, pp. 33–46). Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. Scholar
  19. Cameron, B. H., & McMillan E. (2013). Analyzing the current trends in enterprise architecture frameworks. Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Google Scholar
  20. Chappelle, D. (2013). Big data & analytics reference Architecture, Oracle Corporation.Google Scholar
  21. Chen, H., Kazman, R., & Perry, O. (2010). From software architecture analysis to service engineering: An empirical study of methodology development for enterprise SOA implementation. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, 3(2), 145–160. Scholar
  22. Chief Information Officer Council. (2001). A practical guide to federal enterprise architecture, Retrieved from
  23. Craig Larman, B. V. (2013). Scaling agile development. CrossTalk, 8–12.Google Scholar
  24. Ebert, C., Paasivaara, M. (2017). Scaling agile (pp. 2–7). IEEE Software Technology, the IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  25. Familiar, B. (2015). Microservices, IoT, and Azure: Leveraging DevOps and microservice architecture to deliver SaaS solutions. Apress Media, LLC.Google Scholar
  26. Federal CIO Council. (2008). A practical guide to federal service oriented architecture. Version 1.1.Google Scholar
  27. Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework. (2013). Version 2.Google Scholar
  28. Franke, U., Hook, D., Konig, J., Lagerstrom, R., Narman, P., Ullberg, J., Gustafsson, P., & Ekstedt, M. (2009). EAF2—a framework for categorizing enterprise architecture frameworks. In Proceedings of the 10th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligences, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (pp. 327–332). IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  29. Garnier, J.-L., Bérubé, J., & M. R. Hilliard. (2014). Architecture Guidance Study Report 140430. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 Software and Systems Engineering.Google Scholar
  30. Gill, A. Q. (2013). Towards the Development of an Adaptive Enterprise Service System Model. In Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2013) (pp. 15–17).Google Scholar
  31. Gill, A. Q. (2014). Applying agility and living service systems thinking to enterprise architecture. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies, 10(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gill, A. Q. (2015). Adaptive cloud enterprise architecture. Intelligent information systems (Vol. 4). Australia: University of Technology.Google Scholar
  33. Gill, A. Q., Smith, S., Beydoun, G., & Sugumaran, V. (2014). Agile enterprise architecture: A case of a cloud technology-enabled government enterprise transformation. In Proceedings of the 19th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2014) (pp. 1–11). United States.Google Scholar
  34. GSN. (2018). Retrieved from
  35. Hydra. (2017). Retrieved from
  36. Iacob M. E. et al. (2015). Delivering business outcome with TOGAF® and ArchiMate®. eBook BiZZde-sign.Google Scholar
  37. Johnson, P., et al. (2014). IT management with enterprise architecture. Stockholm: KTH.Google Scholar
  38. Kein, J., Buglak, R., Blockow, D., & Wuttke, T. (2016). A reference architecture for big data systems in the national security domain. In The 2nd International Workshop on Big Data Software Engineering.Google Scholar
  39. Khan, K. M., & Gangavarapu, N. M. (2009). Addressing cloud computing in enterprise architecture: Issues and challenges. Cutter IT Journal, 22(11), 27–33.Google Scholar
  40. Laplante, A., Zhang, J., & Voas, J. (2008). What’s in a name? Distinguishing between SaaS and SOA. IT Professional, 10(3), 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2013). Large scale scrum—more with LeSS. Retrieved December 30, 2014 from Accessed June 10, 2014.
  42. Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: best practices for large enterprises (The agile software development series). Addison-Wesley Professional.Google Scholar
  43. Leffingwell, C., Yakyma, A., Knaster, R., Jemilo, D., & Oren, I. (2016). SAFe 4.0 reference guide: Scaled agile framework R for lean software and systems engineering. Addison-Wesley Professional.Google Scholar
  44. Loukides, M., & Bruner, J. (2015). What is the internet of things? (1st ed.) O’Reilly Media.Google Scholar
  45. MacKenzie, C.M., Laskey, K., McCabe, F., Brown, P.F., & Metz, R. (2006). Reference model for service oriented architecture 1.0 (Technical Report). Advancing Open Standards for the Information Society.Google Scholar
  46. March, J., & Olson, J. (1989). Rediscovering institutions. New York: MacMillan, Free Press. ISBN 0-02-920115-2Google Scholar
  47. Martin, J. (1986). Information engineering. Savant. ISBN 0-9067-7443-8.Google Scholar
  48. Masuda, Y., Shirasaka, S., & Yamamoto, S. (2016). Integrating mobile IT/cloud into enterprise architecture: A comparative analysis. In Proceedings of the 21th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2016) (p. 4).Google Scholar
  49. Masuda, Y., Shirasaka, S., Yamamoto, S., & Hardjono, T. (2017). 7 1. An adaptive enterprise architecture framework and implementation: towards global enterprises in the era of cloud/mobile IT/digital IT. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems. IGI Global, 13, 3, 1–22. Scholar
  50. Masuda, Y., & Yamamoto, S. (2018). A vision for open healthcare platform 2030: KES 2018. In The 6th International KES Conference on Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare (KES-InMed-18).Google Scholar
  51. Microsoft. (2012). Microsoft big data solution brief. Retrieved from download/F/A/1/FA126D6D-841B-4565-BB26-D2ADD4A28F24/Microsoft_Big_Data_Solution_Brief.pdf.
  52. Muhammad, K., & Khan, M. N. A. (2015). Augmenting mobile cloud computing through enterprise architecture: Survey paper. International Journal of Grid Distribution Computing, 8(3), 323–336.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mysore, D., Khupat, S., & Jain, S. (2013). Big data architecture and patterns. In White Paper. IBMGoogle Scholar
  54. Newman, S. (2015). Building microservices. O’Reilly.Google Scholar
  55. OpenIot. (2018). Retrieved from
  56. Oracle. (2014). Information management and big data. In White Paper. Retrieved from
  57. Pääkkönen, P., & Pakkala, D. (2015). Reference architecture and classification of technologies, products and services for big data systems. In Big data research. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  58. Patel, P., & Cassou, D. (2015). Enabling high-level application development for the internet of things. Journal of Systems and Software. CoRR abs/1501.05080.Google Scholar
  59. Persson, P., & Angelsmark, O. (2015). Calvin—merging cloud and IoT. Retrieved from
  60. Ptolemy. (2017). Retrieved from
  61. Richards, M. (2015). Microservices versus service-oriented architecture (1st ed.). O’Reilly Media.Google Scholar
  62. Ross, J.W., Weill, P., & Robertson, D.C. (2006). Enterprise Architecture as strategy—Creating a Foundation for Business Execution, Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  63. Schwaber, K. (1995). Scrum development process. In OOPSLA’95 Workshop on Business Object Design and Implementation. Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Schwaber, K., & Beedle, M. (2002). Agile software development with scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. Sessions, R. (2007). A comparison of the top four enterprise-architecture methodologies. Microsoft. Retrieved May 2007 from
  66. Takeuchi, H., & Nonaka, I. (1986). The new product development game. Harvard Business Review January/February, 137–146.Google Scholar
  67. Tamm, T., Seddon, P. B., Shanks, G., & Reynolds, P. (2011). How does enterprise architecture add value to organisations? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 28(1), 10.Google Scholar
  68. Uludağ, Ö., Kleehaus, M., Xu, X., & Matthes, F. (2017). Investigating the role of architects in scaling agile frameworks.Google Scholar
  69. The Open Group. (2009). Content metamodel. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from
  70. The Open Group. (2012). Archimate 2.0 specification. Van Haren Publishing.Google Scholar
  71. The Open Group. (2011a). Architecture capability framework. Retrieved from
  72. The Open Group. (2011b). TOGAF version 9.1. Van Haren Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. TOGAF® Version 9.1. (2011). An Open Group standard. Retrieved from
  74. UK Ministry of Defence. (2010a). MOD architecture framework (MODAF). Retrieved October 22, 2010, from
  75. UK Ministry of Defence. (2010b). The MODAF service oriented viewpoint. Retrieved October 24, 2010, from
  76. US Department of Commerce. (2015). NIST big data interoperability framework: Reference architecture version 1.Google Scholar
  77. US Department of Defense. (2009). DoD architecture framework version 2.0. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from
  78. Vaidya, A. (2014). Does DAD know best, is it better to do LeSS or just be SAFe? Adapting scaling agile practices into the enterprise. In PNSQC 2014 Proceedings.Google Scholar
  79. Walsh, K.-A. (2012). The deal—from geeks to gurus. The Australian Business Journal.Google Scholar
  80. Weill, P., & Ross, J. W. (2004). IT governance: how top performers manage it decision rights for superior results. Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  81. Weick, K. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  82. WSO2. (2015). In White Paper: A Reference Architecture for the Internet of Things, Version 0.8.0. Retrieved from
  83. Yamamoto, S., Masuda, Y., & Hayashi, M. (2017). Issues on the IoT service platform reference architecture. In Research Meeting on KSN, Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence.Google Scholar
  84. Zachman, J. A. (1987). A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Systems Journal, 26(3), 454–470. Scholar
  85. Zachman, J. A. (2011). Cloud computing and enterprise architecture. Zachman International, Inc.Google Scholar
  86. Zimmermann, A., Schmidt, R., Sandkuhl, K., & Jugel, D. (2015). Digital enterprise architecture—transformation for the internet of things. In Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop (EDOCW), IEEE 19th International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Keio UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Carnegie Mellon University in AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations