Systematic Palaeontology

  • Wei-Hong HeEmail author
  • G. R. Shi
  • Shu-Zhong Shen
  • Ting-Lu Yang
  • Yang Zhang
  • Hui-Ting Wu
  • Han Wang
  • Jian-Jun Bu
Part of the New Records of the Great Dying in South China book series (NRGDSC)


The classification of Brachiopoda adopted herein follows Williams et al. (2000, 2002, 2006) for Productida, Orthida, Orthotetida, Rhynchonellida, Spiriferida and Lingulida, with exceptions for Anidanthus which follows Waterhouse (1968a), Speciothyris which follows Jin and Sun, 1981 and Lingulidae which follows Emig (2003). In addition, we revised the classification of Parapygmochonetes at the family level based on a parsimony analysis.


  1. Abich OWH. 1878. Geologische Forschungen in den Kaukasischen Ländern. Th. 1. Eine Bergkaok fauna aus der Araxesenge bei Djoulfa in Armenien, Wien, 7: 1–126.Google Scholar
  2. Afanasjeva GA. 1977. Suborder Chonetidina. In: Sarycheva, TG (Ed.), Pozdiepaleozoiskie Productidy Sibiri i Arktiki. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Paleozoologicheskii Institute, Trudy (Moscow), 161: 5–41 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. Archbold NW. 1980. Studies on western Australian Permian brachiopods. 1. The family Anopliidae (Chonetidina). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 91: 181–192.Google Scholar
  4. Archbold NW. 1981. A new species of Tornquistia (Brachiopoda: Chonetidina) from the Artinskian (Permian) of Western Australia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, 42: 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archbold NW. 1982. Sommeriella, a new name for the Permian chonetacean brachiopod subgenus Sommeria Archbold 1981. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 94: 10.Google Scholar
  6. Archbold NW. 1983. Permian marine invertebrate provinces of the Gondwanan Realm. Alcheringa, 7: 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Archbold NW. 1990. Studies on Western Australian Permian brachiopods 9. The Sterlitamakian brachiopod fauna the Cuncudgerie Sandstone, Canning Basin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 102: 1–13.Google Scholar
  8. Archbold NW. 1993. Studies on Western Australian Permian brachiopods 11. New genera, species and records. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 105: 1–29.Google Scholar
  9. Archbold NW. 1999. Additional records of Permian brachiopods from near Rat Buri, Thailand. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 111: 71–86.Google Scholar
  10. Archbold NW, Cisterna GA, Sterren AF. 2005. Lingulida (Brachiopoda) from the Early Permian of Argentina. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 112: 307–317.Google Scholar
  11. Baliński A. 1975. Secondary changes in micro-ornamentation of some Devonian Ambocoeliid brachiopods. Palaeontology, 18: 179–189.Google Scholar
  12. Bamber EW, Waterhouse JB. 1971. Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy and Paleontology, northern Yukon Territory, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 19: 29250. Google Scholar
  13. Biernat G, Emig CC. 1993. Anatomical distinctions of the Mesozoic lingulide brachiopods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 38: 1–20.Google Scholar
  14. Bittner A. 1899. Versteinerungen aus den TriasAbladerungen des Süd-Ussuri-Gebietes in der ostsibirischen Küstenprovinz. Mémoires du Comité Géologique, 7: 135.Google Scholar
  15. Booker FW. 1932. A new species of Productus from the Lower Bowen Series–Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 43: 66–72.Google Scholar
  16. Boucot AJ, Amsden TW. 1958. New genera of brachiopods. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, 78: 159–170.Google Scholar
  17. Broili F. 1916. Die Permischen Brachiopoden von Timor. In: Wanner J, Weber F (Eds), Erggebnisse der Expeditionen G.A.F. Molengraaff, VII, 104 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Bronn HG. 1862. Die Klassen und Ordnungen der Weichthiere. C. F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung Press, Leipzig and Heidelberg, 518 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell KSW. 1953. The fauna of the Permo–Carboniferous Ingelara Beds of Queensland. Papers of Department of Geology of University of Queensland, 3: 1–43.Google Scholar
  20. Campi MJ, Shi GR. 2005. New Lopingian (Late Permian) rugosochonetid species from Sichuan, South China. Alcheringa, 29: 275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter JL. 1968. New genera and species of early Mississippian brachiopods from the Burlington Limestone. Journal of Paleontology, 42: 1140–1152.Google Scholar
  22. Caster KE. 1939. A Devonian fauna from Colombia. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 24: 1–218.Google Scholar
  23. Chao YT. 1927. Productidae of China, Part 1. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series B, 5: 1–244.Google Scholar
  24. Chao YT. 1928. Productidae of China. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series B, 5: 1–85.Google Scholar
  25. Chao YT. 1929. Carboniferous and Permian Spiriferids of China. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series B, 11: 1–133.Google Scholar
  26. Chen ZQ, Shi G R. 1999. Revision of Prelissorhynchia Xu & Grant, 1994 (Brachiopoda) from the Upper Permian of South China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 111: 15–26.Google Scholar
  27. Chen ZQ, Shi GR, Shen SZ, Archbold NW. 2000. Tethyochonetes gen. nov. (Chonetida, Brachiopoda) from the Lopingian (Late Permian) of China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 112: 1–15.Google Scholar
  28. Chen ZQ, Kaiho K, George AD. 2005. Survival strategies of brachiopod faunas from the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 224: 232−269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen ZQ, Shi GR, Yang FQ, Gao YQ, Tong JN, Peng YQ. 2006a. An ecologically mixed brachiopod fauna from Changhsingian deep-water basin of South China: consequence of end-Permian global warming. Lethaia, 39: 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen ZQ, Kaiho K, George AD, Tong JN. 2006b. Survival brachiopod faunas of the end-Permian mass extinction from the Southern Alps (Italy) and South China. Geological Magazine, 143: 301–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen ZQ, Shi GR, Gao YQ, Tong JN, Yang FQ, Peng YQ. 2009a. A late Changhsingian (latest Permian) deep-water brachiopod fauna from Guizhou, South China. Alcheringa, 33: 163–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen ZQ, Tong JN, Zhang KX, Yang H, Liao ZT, Song HJ, Chen J. 2009b. Environmental and biotic turnover across the Permian–Triassic boundary on a shallow carbonate platform in western Zhejiang, South China. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 56: 775–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chi-Thuan TT. 1961. Les brachiopodes permiens du Phnom-Tup (Sisophon-Cambodge). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences, Université de Saigon, 1961: 267–308.Google Scholar
  34. Cooper GA. 1957. Permian brachiopods from central Oregon. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 134: 1–79.Google Scholar
  35. Cooper GA, Grant RE. 1969. New Permian Brachiopoda from West Texas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 1: 1–20.Google Scholar
  36. Cooper GA, Grant RE. 1974. Permian brachiopods of West Texas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 15: 233–793.Google Scholar
  37. Cooper GA, Grant RE. 1976a. Permian brachiopods of West Texas, V. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 24: 2609–3159.Google Scholar
  38. Cooper GA, Grant RE. 1976b. Permian brachiopods of West Texas, IV. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 21: 1923–2607.Google Scholar
  39. d’Orbigny A. 1847. Considérations zoologiques et géologiques sur les Brachiopodes ou Palliobranches. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, 25: 266–269.Google Scholar
  40. Dagys AS. 1974. Triasovye brakhiopody (Morfologiia, sistema, filogeniia, stratigraficheskoe znachenie I biogeografiia) [Triassic brachiopods (Morphology, classification, phylogeny, stratigraphical significance and biogeography)]. Sibirskoe Otdelenie Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.” Novosibirsk, 387 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Dall WH. 1870. A revision of the Terebratulidae ad Lingulidae. American Journal of Conchology, 6: 177–204.Google Scholar
  42. Davidson T. 1848. Mémoire sur les Brachiopodes du Système Silurien supérieur de l’Angleterre. Société Géologique de France, Bulletin (series 2), 5: 309–338.Google Scholar
  43. Davidson T. 1859. Palaeontological notes on the Brachiopoda. 2. On the families Strophomenidae and Productidae. Geologist, 2: 97–117.Google Scholar
  44. De Koninck LG. 1863. Mémoire sur les fossiles paléozoїques recueillis dans l’Inde par M. le Docteur Fleming. H. Dessain. Liège, 44 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Derby OA. 1874. On the Carboniferous Brachiopoda of Itaituba, Rio Tapajos, Province of Para, Brazil. Cornell University Scientific Bulletin, 2: 1–63.Google Scholar
  46. Egorov AN, Popov LE. 1990. Novyi rod lingulid iz nizhnepermskikh otlozhenii Sibirskoi Platformy. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 4: 111–115.Google Scholar
  47. Emig CC. 2003. Proof that Lingula (Brachiopoda) is not a living-fossil, and emended diagnoses of the family Lingulidae. Notebooks on Geology, Letter 2003/01. Updated at
  48. Feng RL, Jiang ZL. 1978. Brachiopoda, p. 231–305. In: Guizhou Working Group of Paleontology (Ed.), Paleontological atlas of southwest China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [In Chinese].Google Scholar
  49. Feng SN, Xu SY, Lin JX, Yang DL. 1984. Biostratigraphy of the Yangtze Gorge Area (3), p. 63–239. In: Yichang Institution of Geology and Mineral Resources (Ed.), Late Palaozoic Era. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  50. Fischer de Waldheim G. 1825. Notice sur la Choristite. Programme d’invitation à la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, Moscow, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  51. Fischer de Waldheim G. 1829. Quelques fossiles de gouvernement de Moscou. Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou Bulletin, 1: 375–376.Google Scholar
  52. Fischer de Waldheim G. 1830. Oryctographie du gouvernement de Moscou, 1st ed. A. Semen, Moscow, 202 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Frech F. 1911. Das Obercarbon Chinas, die Dyas, p. 64–193. In: von Richthofen F (Ed.), China, Volume 5, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  54. Fredericks G. 1924. Ussuriiskii verkhnii paleozoi. I. Brachiopoda. Materialy po Geologii I Poleznym Iskopaemym Dal’nego Vostoka, 28: 1–53.Google Scholar
  55. Fredericks G. 1928. Materialy dlya klassifiatsii roda Productus Sow. Izvestiia Geologicheskogo Komiteta Leningrad, 46: 773–792.Google Scholar
  56. Gemmellaro GG. 1899. La fauna dei calcari con Fusulina della valle del fiume Sosio nella Provincia di Palermo. Parte IV Brachiopoda. Giornale di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo, 22: 95–214.Google Scholar
  57. George TN. 1931. Ambocoelia Hall and certain similar British Spiriferidae. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal, 87: 30–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. George TN. 1932. The British Carboniferous reticulate Spiriferidae. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal, 88: 516–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Girty GH. 1904. New molluscan genera from the Carboniferous. United States National Museum Proceedings, 27: 721–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gordon M, Henry TW. 1990. Marginovatia, a mid-Carboniferous genus of linoproductid brachiopods. Journal of Paleontolog, 64: 532–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gorjansky VI, Popov LE. 1985. Morfologiia, systematicheskoe polozhenie i proiskhozhdenie bezzamkovykh brachiopods karbonatnoi rakovinoi. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 3: 3–14.Google Scholar
  62. Grabau AW. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia. American Museum of Natural History, Natural History of Central Asia, 4: 1–665.Google Scholar
  63. Grant RE. 1976. Permian brachiopods from southern Thailand. Journal of Paleontology, 50 (supplement to No. 3, Paleontological Society Memoir 9): 1–269.Google Scholar
  64. Grant RE. 1993. Permian brachiopods from Khios Island, Greece. Journal of Paleontology, 67: 1–21.Google Scholar
  65. Gray JE. 1840. Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum, 42 edition. British Musuem, London, 370 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Hall J, Clarke JM. 1890. Extract. Palaeontology of New York. Charles van Benthuysen and Sons, Albany, 8: 120–137.Google Scholar
  67. Hall J, Clarke JM. 1892. An introduction to the study of the genera of Palaeozoic brachiopoda. Natural History of New York, Palaeontology, 8: 1–367.Google Scholar
  68. Havlíček V. 1977. Brachiopods of the order Orthida in Czechoslovakia. Rozpravy ÚstřednÍho Ústavu Geologického, 44: 1–327.Google Scholar
  69. He WH, Shen SZ, Feng QL, Gu SZ. 2005. A late Changxingian (Late Permian) deep-water brachiopod fauna from the Talung Formation at the Dongpan Section, Southern Guangxi, in South China. Journal of Paleontology, 79: 927–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. He WH, Shi GR., Feng QL., Peng YQ. 2007. Discovery of late Changhsingian (latest Permian) brachiopod Attenuatella species from South China. Alcheringa, 31: 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. He WH, Shi GR, Zhang Y, Yang TL, Teng F, Wu SB. 2012. Systematics and palaeoecology of Changhsingian (Late Permian) Ambocoeliidae brachiopods from South China and implications for the end-Permian mass extinction. Alcheringa, 36: 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. He WH, Shi GR, Zhang Y, Yang TL, Zhang KX, Wu SB, Niu ZJ, Zhang ZY. 2014. Changhsingian (latest Permian) deep-water brachiopod fauna from South China. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 12: 907–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. He XL, Zhu ML. 1985. Some Upper Permian new genera and species of Orthotetacea in south west China. Acta Palaeontologia Sinica, 24: 198–204. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  74. Holmer LE, Popov LE, Klishevich I, Ghobadi PM. 2016. Reassessment of the early Triassic lingulid brachiopod ‘Lingulaborealis Bittner, 1899 and related problems of lingulid taxonomy. GFF, 138: 519–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hou HF, Zhan LP, Chen BW, Others. 1979. The coal-bearing strata and fossils of the Late Permian from Guangdong. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 166 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  76. Huang TK. 1932. Late Permian brachiopoda of southwestern China, Part 1. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series B, 9: 1–138.Google Scholar
  77. Huang TK. 1933. Late Permian brachiopoda of southwestern China, Part 2. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series B, 9: 1–172.Google Scholar
  78. Jin YG, Hu SZ. 1978. Brachiopods of the Kuhfeng Formation in South Anhui and Nanking Hills. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 17: 101–127. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  79. Jin YG, Ye SL. 1979. Brachiopoda, p. 60–217. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Geological Institute of Qinghai Province (Ed.). Paleontological Atlas of northwest China-Qinghai. Volumn 1. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  80. Jin YG, Sun DL. 1981. Palaeozoic brachiopods from Xizang, p. 127–176, pls. 1–12. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (Ed.), Palaeontology of Xizang, Book 3 (The series of the Scientific Expedition to the Qinghai–Xizang Plateau). Science Press, Beijing. [In Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  81. Jin YG, Liao ZT, Fang BX. 1974. Brachiopoda (Permian), p. 308–314. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (Ed.), A handbook of the Stratigraphy and Palaeontology in Southwest China. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  82. Jin YG, Wang Y, Sun DL. 1985. Late Paleozoic and Triassic brachiopods from the East of the Qinghai–Xizang Plateau, p. 182–249, pls. 1–20. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica and Regional Geological Surveying Team, Sichuan Province (Eds), Stratigraphy and Palaeontology in W. Sichuan and E. Xizang, China, Part 3. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu. [In Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  83. Kayser E. 1883. Obercarbonische Fauna von Loping, p. 160–208. In: von Richthofen F (Ed.), China. Band 4. D. Reimer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  84. King RH. 1930–1931. The geology of the Glass Mountain, Texas, Part 2: Faunal summary and correlation of the Permian formations with descriptions of brachiopods. University of Texas Bulletin, 3042: 1–245.Google Scholar
  85. King RH. 1938. New Chonetidae and Productidae from Pennsylvanian and Permian strata of North-Central Texas. Journal of Paleontolog, 12: 257–279.Google Scholar
  86. King W. 1850. A monograph of the Permian fossils of England. Palaeontographical Society, Monography, 3: 1–258.Google Scholar
  87. Kuhn O. 1949. Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 326 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Léveillé C. 1835. Aperçu géologique de quelques localités très riches en coquilles sur les frontières de France et de Belgique. Mémoire de la Société Géologique de la France, 2: 29–40.Google Scholar
  89. Li L, Gu F, Su YZ. 1980. Brachiopoda, p. 327–428. In: Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (Ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of Northeast China 1, Paleozoic Volume. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  90. Li WZ, Shen SZ. 2008. Lopingian (Late Permian) brachiopods around the Wuchiapingian–Changhsingian boundary at the Meishan sections C and D, Changxing, South China. Geobios, 41: 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Li ZS, Zhan LP, Zhu XF, Zhang JH, Huang HQ, Xu DY, Yan Z, Li HM. 1989. Study on the Permian−Triassic biostratigraphy and event stratigraphy of northern Sichuan and southern Shaanxi. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 435 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  92. Li WZ, Shi GR, Yarinpil A, He WH, Shen SZ. 2012. Cancrinella and Costatumulus (Brachiopoda) from the Permian of South Monglia and South China: Their morphology, biostratigraphy and distribution. Geobios, 45: 297–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Liang WP. 1990. Lengwu Formation of Permian and its brachiopod fauna in Zhejiang Province. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 435 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  94. Liao ZT. 1979a. Brachiopod Assemblage Zone of Changhsing Stage and brachiopods from Permo–Triassic Boundary Beds in China. Acta Stratigraphica Sinica, 3: 200–208. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  95. Liao ZT. 1979b. Uppermost Carboniferous brachiopods from western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 18: 527–546. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  96. Liao ZT. 1980a. Upper Permian Brachiopods from western Guizhou, p. 241–277. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology (Ed.), Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Upper Permian Coal-Bearing Formations in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, China. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  97. Liao ZT. 1980b. Brachiopod assemblages from the Upper Permian and Permian–Triassic boundary beds, South China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 17: 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Liao ZT. 1983. Two new genera of Brachiopoda from the Heshan Formation (Upper Permian) of Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 22: 637–641. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  99. Liao ZT. 1984. New genus and species of Late Permian and earliest Triassic brachiopods from Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces. Acta of Palaeontologica Sinica, 23: 276–285. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  100. Liao ZT. 1987. Paleoecological characters and stratigraphic significance of silified brachiopods of the Upper Permian from Heshan, Laibin, Guangxi, p. 81–125. In: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology (Ed.), Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Systemic Boundares in China Perman and Triassic Boundary (1). Nanjing University Press, Nanjing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  101. Liao ZT, Meng FY. 1986. Late Changhsingian brachiopods from Huatang of Chen Xian County, southern Hunan. Memoir of Nanjing Institution of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, 22: 71–94. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  102. Licharew BK. 1956. Nadsemeistvo Rhynchonellacea Gray, 1848, p. 56–61. In: Kiparisova LD, Markowskii BP, Radchenko GP (Eds), Materialy po Paleontologii, Novye Semeistva I Rody. Volume 12. Vsesoiuznyi Nauchnolssledovatel’skii Geologicheskii Institut (VSEGEI), Materialy (Paleontologiia).Google Scholar
  103. McCoy F. 1844. A Synopsis of the Character of the Carboniferous Fossils of Ireland. University Press, Dobin, 207 pp.Google Scholar
  104. McCoy F. 1855. Systematic descriptions of the British Palaeozoic fossils in the Geological Museum of the University of Cambridge, London, 3: 407–661.Google Scholar
  105. Menke CT. 1828. Synopsis methodica molluscorum generum omnium et specierum earum quae in Museo Menkeano adservantur. G. Uslar. Pyrmonti, 91 pp.Google Scholar
  106. Mergl M. 2006. A review of Silurian discinoid brachiopods from historical British localities. Bulletin of Geosciences, 81: 215–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Miloradovich BV. 1936. Nizhnepermskaia fauna ostrova Mezhdusharskogo (Iuzhnyi Ostrov Novoy Zemli). Transactions of the Arctic Institute, 37: 37–82.Google Scholar
  108. Moore RC. 1952. Brachiopod, p. 197–267. In: Moore RC, Lalicker CG, Fischer AG (Eds), Invertebrate fossils. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Muir-Wood HM. 1955. A history of the classification of the phylum Brachiopoda. British Museum, Natural History, London, 124 pp.Google Scholar
  110. Muir-Wood HM. 1962. On the morphology and classification of the brachiopod suborder Chonetoidea. British Museum, National History, London, 132 pp.Google Scholar
  111. Muir-Wood HM, Cooper GA. 1960. Morphology, classification and life habits of the Productoidea (Brachiopoda). Geological Society of America Memoir, 81: 1–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Oehlert DP. 1890. Note sur différents groupes établis dans le genre Orthis et en particulier sur Rhipidomella Oehlert (= Rhipidomys Oehlert, olim). Journal de Conchyliologie, 30: 366–374.Google Scholar
  113. Ozaki KE. 1931. Upper Carboniferous brachiopods from North China. Shanghai Science Institute Bulletin, 1: 1–205.Google Scholar
  114. Paeckelmann W. 1930. Die fauna des deutschen Untercarbons. Die Brachiopoden, I: die Orthiden, Strophomeniden und Choneten des mittleren und oberen Unterkarbons. Königliche-Preussische Geologische Landesanstalt, Abhandlungen (new series), 122: 143–326.Google Scholar
  115. Peng YQ, Shi GR. 2008. New Early Triassic Lingulidae (Brachiopoda) genera and species from South China. Alcheringa, 32: 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Posenato R, Holmer LE, Prinoth H. 2014. Adaptive stratigies and environmental significance of lingulid brachiopods across the late Permian extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 399: 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reed FRC. 1944. Brachiopoda and Mollusca from the Productus limestones of the Salt Range. Memoirs of Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, 23: 1–678.Google Scholar
  118. Rong JY, Jin YG, Shen SZ, Zhan RB. 2017. Phanerozoic Brachiopod Genera of China. Science Press, Beijing, 1096 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Sarytcheva TG. 1937. Nizhnekamennougol’nye produktidy podmoskovnogo basseina (Rody Striatifera, Linoproductus I Cancrinella). Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Paleozoologicheskii Institute, Trudy (Moscow), 6: 7–123 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  120. Sarytcheva TG, Sokolskaya AN. 1959. O Klassificatsin lozhnoporistykh brachiopod. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Doklady (Moscow), 125: 181–184 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  121. Sarytcheva TG, Sokolskaya AN, Beznosova GA, Maksimova SV. 1963. Brakhiopody i paleografiia Karbona Kuznetskoi kotloviny. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Paleontologicheskii Institut, Trudy (Moscow), 95: 1–547 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  122. Schellwien E. 1900. Beiträge zur Systematik der Strophomeniden des oberen Paläozoicum. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 1: 1–15.Google Scholar
  123. von Schlotheim EF. 1816. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen in geognostischer Hinsicht. Akademi Wissenschaften Munchen Mathematischephysike Klasse Denkschriften, 6: 13–36.Google Scholar
  124. Schuchert C. 1913. Class Brachiopoda, p. 290–449. In: The Lower Devonian deposits of Maryland. Maryland Geological Survey, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  125. Schuchert C, Levene CM. 1929. Brachiopoda (Generum et Genotyporum Index et Bibliographia), p. 1–140. In: Pompeckj JF (Ed.), Fossilium Catalogus. I: Animalia. Part 42, W. Junk, Berlin.Google Scholar
  126. Schuchert C, Cooper GA. 1931. Synopsis of the brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea, with notes on the Telotremata. American Journal of Science (series 5), 22: 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schuchert C, Cooper GA. 1932. Brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 4: 1–270.Google Scholar
  128. Shen SZ, He XL. 1994. Changhsingian brachiopod fauna from Guiding, Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 33: 440–454. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  129. Shen SZ, Archbold NW. 2002. Chonetoidea (Brachiopoda) from the Lopingian (Late Permian) of South China. Alcheringa, 25: 327–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shen SZ, Shi GR. 2007. Lopingian (Late Permian) brachiopods from South China, Part 1, Orthotetida, Orthida and Rhynchonellida. Bulletin of the Tohoku University Museum, 6: 1–102.Google Scholar
  131. Shen SZ, Shi GR. 2009. Latest Guadalupian brachiopods from the Guadalupian/Lopingian boundary GSSP section at Penglaitan in Laibin, Guangxi, South China and implications for the timing of the pre-Lopingian crisis. Palaeoworld, 18: 152–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shen SZ, Archbold NW, Shi GR, Chen ZQ. 2000. Permian brachioipods from the Selong Xishan Section, Xizang (Tibet), China, Part 1, Stratigraphy, Strophomenida, Productida and Rhynchonellida. Geobios, 33: 725–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Shen SZ, Archbold NW, Shi GR. 2001. A Lopingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna from the Qubuerga Formation at Shengmi in the Mount Qomolangma Region of southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Journal of Paleontology, 75: 274–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shen SZ, Shi GR, Fang ZJ. 2002. Permian brachiopods from the Baoshan and Simao Blocks in western Yunnan, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20: 665–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shi GR, Waterhouse JB. 1996. Lower Permian brachiopods and mollusks from the upper Jungle Creek Formation, northern Yukon, Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 424: 119–123.Google Scholar
  136. Shi GR, Shen SZ. 1998. A Changhsingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna from Son La, northwest Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 16: 501–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Shimizu D. 1961. Brachiopod fossils from the Upper Permian Gujo Formation of the Maizuru Group, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Kyoto University, College of Science, Geology and Mineralogy, Memoirs, Series B, 28: 243–254.Google Scholar
  138. Sowerby J. 1818–1821. The mineral conchology of Great Britain. W. Ardling, London, 184 pp.Google Scholar
  139. Stehli FG. 1954. Lower Leonardian brachiopoda of the Sierra Diablo. Bulletin of the American Museum of National History, 105: 257–358.Google Scholar
  140. Swofford L. 2002, PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), 4.0 beta 10, programme and documentation, Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, 140 pp.Google Scholar
  141. Tazawa J. 1976. The Permian of Kesennuma, Kitakami Mountains: A preliminary report. Earth Science, Journal of the Association for Geological Collaboration in Japan, 30: 175–185.Google Scholar
  142. Tazawa J. 2002. Late Paleozoic brachiopod faunas of the South Kitakami Belt, northeast Japan, and their paleobiogeographic and tectonic implications. The Island Arc, 11: 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thomas I. 1910. The British Carboniferous Orthotetinae. Great Britain Geological Survey Memoir, 1: 83–134.Google Scholar
  144. Tian BL. 1981. Fossil Atlas of Wangjiazhai Coal Field, Shuicheng County, Guizhou Province. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 98 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  145. Tong ZX. 1978. Brachiopoda, p. 210–267. In: Geological Institute of Southwest China (Ed.), Paleontological Atlas of Southwest China, Sichuan. Volume 2, Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  146. Tschernyschew TN. 1902. Verkhnekamennougol’nye brakhiopody Urala i Timana [Upper Carboniferous brachiopods of the Urals and the Timann]. Trudy Geologicheskogo Komiteta, 16: 1–749. [In Russian].Google Scholar
  147. Ustritsky VI, Tschernjak GE. 1963. Biostratigrafia I brakhiopody verkhnego Paleozoia Taimyra. Nauchno-Issledovatel’skii Institut Geologii Arktiki (NIIGA), Trudy (Moscow), 134: 1–139 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  148. Waagen W. 1882–85. Salt Range Fossils I. Productus Limestone Fossils. Palaeontologia Indica, Series 13, 4: 329–728.Google Scholar
  149. Wang CW, Yang SP. 1998. Study on Late Carboniferous–Early Permian brachiopod fauna in central Xinqiang and biostratigraphy. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 156 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  150. Wang GP, Liu QZ, Jin YG, Hu SZ, Liang WP, Liao ZT. 1982. Brachiopoda, p. 186–256. In: Nanjing Institution of Geology and Mineral Resources (Ed.), Paleontological atlas of southeast China, Late Paleozoic 2. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  151. Wang SM. 1984. Brachiopoda, p. 128–236. In: Regional Geological Surveying Team of Hubei (Ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of Hubei Province, Hubei Science and Technology Press, Wuhan. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  152. Wang Y. 1955a. Phylum Brachiopoda, p. 109–171. In: Index Fossils of China (Invertebratea), Book 2. Science Press, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  153. Wang Y. 1955b. New genera of brachiopods. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 4: 327–357. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  154. Wang Y. 1956. New species of brachiopods (II). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 4: 387–407. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  155. Wang Y, Jin YG, Fang DW. 1964. Brachiopod fossils of China. Science Press, Beijing, 777 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  156. Wang Y, Jin YG, Fang DW. 1966. Fossil Brachiopoda. Scientific Press, Beijing, 373 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  157. Waterhouse JB. 1964. Permian brachiopods of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey, Paleontological Bulletin, 35: 1–285.Google Scholar
  158. Waterhouse JB. 1967. A new species of Attenuatella (Brachiopoda) from Permian beds near Drake, New South Wales. Records of Australian Museum, 27: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Waterhouse JB. 1968a. Redescription of the Permian brachiopod Anidanthus springsurensis Booker. Transactions of the Society of New Zealand Geology, 5: 235–243.Google Scholar
  160. Waterhouse JB. 1968b. New species of Megousia Muir-Wood and Cooper and allied new genus from the Permian of Australia and North America. Journal of Paleontology, 42: 1171–1185.Google Scholar
  161. Waterhouse JB. 1968c. The classification and descriptions of Permian Spiriferida (Brachiopoda) from New Zealand. Palaeontographica (A), 129: 1–94.Google Scholar
  162. Waterhouse JB. 1975. New Permian and Triassic brachiopod taxa. Paper of Department of Geology of University of Queensland, 7: 1–23.Google Scholar
  163. Waterhouse JB. 1981. Early Permian brachiopods from Ko Yao Noi and near Krabi, southern Thailand, p. 47–213. In: Waterhouse JB, Pitakpaivan K, Mantajit N (Eds), The Permian Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of southern Thailand. Geological Survey Division Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  164. Waterhouse JB. 1983a. New Permian invertebrate genera from East Australian segment of Gondwana. Bulletin of the Indian Geologists’ Association, 16: 153–158.Google Scholar
  165. Waterhouse JB. 1983b. Permian brachiopods from Pija Member, Senja Formation in Manang district of Nepal, with new brachiopod genera and species from other regions. Bulletin of the Indian Geologists’ Association, 16: 111–151.Google Scholar
  166. Waterhouse JB. 1983c. A Late Permian lyttoniid fauna from northwest Thailand. Paper of Department of Geology of University of Queensland, 10: 111–153.Google Scholar
  167. Waterhouse JB. 1986. New late Paleozoic invertebrate taxa. Bulletin of the Indian Geologists’ Association, 19: 1–8.Google Scholar
  168. Waterhouse JB, Piyasin S. 1970. Mid-Permian brachiopods from Khao Phrik, Thailand. Palaeontographica (Abt. A), 135: 83–197.Google Scholar
  169. Waterhouse JB, Briggs DJC, Parfrey SM. 1983. Major fauna assemblages in the Early Permian Tiverton Formation nearly Homevale Homestead, northern Bowen basin, Queensland, p. 121–138. In: Foster CB (Ed.), Permian Geology of Queensland. Geological Society of Australia, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  170. White CA. 1862. Description of new species of fossils from the Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of the Mississippi Valley. Boston Society of Natural History Proceedings, 9: 8–33.Google Scholar
  171. White CA, St John O. 1867. Descriptions of new Subcarboniferous and coal measure fossils, collected upon the Geological Survey of lowa together with a notice of new generic characters involved in two species of brachiopods. Chicago Academy of Science, Transactions, 1: 115–127.Google Scholar
  172. Whitehouse FW. 1928. Notes on upper Paleozoic marine horizons in eastern and western Australia. Australian Association for the Advancement of Science. Report, 18: 281–283.Google Scholar
  173. Willard B. 1928. The brachiopods of the Ottosee and Holston formations of Tennessee and Virginia. Bulletin of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, 68: 255–292.Google Scholar
  174. Williams A. 1953. The classification of the strophomenoid brachiopods. Washington Academy of Sciences Journal, 43: 1–13.Google Scholar
  175. Williams A, Carlson SJ, Brunton CHC, Holmer LE, Popov LE, Mergl M, Laurie JR, Bassett MG, Cocks LRM, Rong JY, Lazarev SS, Grant RE, Racheboeuf PR, Jin YG, Wardlaw BR, Harper DAT, Wright AD, Rubel M. 2000. Linguliformea, Craniiforemea, and Rhynchonelliformea (part), p. 350–688, 714–846. In: Williams A et al. (Eds), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda (revised) 2, 3, Linguliformea, Craniiforemea, and Rhynchonelliformea (part). The Geological Society of America, and the University of Kansas, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  176. Williams A, Brunton CHC, Carlson SJ, Alvarez F, Blodgett RB, Boucot AJ, Copper P, Dagys AS, Grant RE, Jin YG, MacKinnon DI, ManceÑido MO, Owen EF, Rong JY, Savage NM, Sun DL. 2002. Rhynchonelliformea (part), p. 1027–1376, 1496–1583. In: Williams A et al. (Eds), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda (revised) 4, Rhynchonelliformea (part). The Geological Society of America, and the University of Kansas, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  177. Williams A, Brunton CHC, Carlson SJ, Baker PG, Carter JL, Curry GB, Dagys AS, Gourvennec R, Hou HF, Jin YG, Johnson JG, Lee DE, MacKinnon DI, Racheboeuf PR, Smirnova TN, Sun DL. 2006. Rhynchonelliformea (part), p. 1689–1937. In: Williams A et al. (Eds), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda (revised) 5, Rhynchonelliformea (part). Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Boulder and Lawrence.Google Scholar
  178. Wongwanich T, Boucot AJ, Brunton CHC, House MR, Racheboeuf PR. 2004. Namurian fossils (brachiopods, goniatites) from Satun Province, Southern Thailand. Journal of Paleontology, 78: 1072–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wu HT, Shi GR, He WH. 2017. A quantitative taxonomic review of Fusichonetes and Tethyochonetes (Chonetidina, Brachiopoda). Journal of Paleontology, 91: 1296–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Xu GR, Grant RE. 1994. Brachiopods near the Permian–Triassic boundary in south China. Smithsonian Contributions to paleobiology, 76: 1–68.Google Scholar
  181. Yanagida J. 1988. Biostratigraphic study of Paleozoic and Mesozoic groups in central and northern Thailand, An Interim Report. Kyushu University, Kyushu, 47 pp.Google Scholar
  182. Yang DL, Ni SZ, Chang ML, Chao RX. 1977. Brachiopoda, p. 303–470. In: Hubei Institution of Geological Science and others (Eds), Paleontological atlas of central South China 2. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  183. Yang ZY, Xu GR. 1966. Triassic brachiopods of central Guizhou Province, China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 151 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  184. Yang ZY, Ding PZ, Yin HF, Zhang SX, Fan JS. 1962. The brachiopod fauna of Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic in the Chilianshan region. Monograph on the geology of the Chilianshan Mountains 4(4). Science Press, Beijing, 134 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  185. Yang ZY, Yin HF, Wu SB, Yang FQ, Ding MH, Xu GR. 1987. Permian–Triassic boundary stratigraphy and fauna of South China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 378 pp. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  186. Zavodowsky VM. 1960. Novye vidy permskikh brachiopod basseina Kolymy i Ohhotskogo poberazh’ya. Materialy po Geologii Poleznym Iskopaemym Severo-Vostoka SSSR, 14: 61–73.Google Scholar
  187. Zavodowsky VM. 1971. Brachiopoda, p. 70–182. In: Kulikov MV (Ed.), Field Atlas of the Permian fauna and flora of Northeast of USSR. Izd-Vo Magadan Kn.Google Scholar
  188. Zeng Y, He XL, Zhu ML. 1995. Brachiopod communities and their succession and replacement in the Permian of Huayingshan Area. China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou, 187 pp. [in Chinese with English summary].Google Scholar
  189. Zhan LP, Li L. 1962. Early Permian brachiopods from the Maokou Suite of the eastern Qinling Mountain. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 10: 472–483. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  190. Zhang Y, Jin YG. 1961. An Upper Permian brachiopoda fauna from Jingxian, Anhui Province. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 9: 401–417. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  191. Zhang Y, He WH. 2009. Brachiopod fauna of Duanshan Section in Guizhou Province, and its geological significance. Geological Science and Technology Information, 28: 15–37. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  192. Zhang Y, He WH, Shi GR, Zhang KX. 2013. A new Changhsingian (Late Permian) Rugosochonetidae (Brachiopoda) fauna from the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China. Alcheringa, 37: 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zhang Y, Shi GR, He WH, Zhang KX, Wu HT. 2014. A new Changhsingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna from the Zhongzhai section (South China), Part 2: Lingulida, Orthida, Orthotetida and Spiriferida. Alcheringa, 38: 480–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zhang Y, He WH, Shi GR, Zhang KX, Wu HT. 2015. A new Changhsingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna from the Zhongzhai section (South China) Part 3: Productida. Alcheringa, 39: 295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Zhao JK, Sheng JZ, Yao ZQ, Liang XL, Chen CZ, Rui L, Liao ZT. 1981. The Changhsingian and the Permian–Triassic Boundary in South China. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Bulletin, 2: 1–112. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  196. Zhao RX, Tan ZX. 1984. Lower Permian brachiopods from Sangzhi, Hunan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 23: 20–31. [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
  197. Zhu T. 1990. The Permian coal-bearing strata and palaeobiocoenosis of Fujian. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 127 pp. [in Chinese].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei-Hong He
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. R. Shi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shu-Zhong Shen
    • 4
  • Ting-Lu Yang
    • 5
  • Yang Zhang
    • 6
  • Hui-Ting Wu
    • 7
  • Han Wang
    • 7
  • Jian-Jun Bu
    • 8
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, School of Earth SciencesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Life and Environmental SciencesBurwoodAustralia
  3. 3.Deakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and StratigraphyNanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Palaeoenvironment, Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  5. 5.Faculty of GeosciencesEast China University of TechnologyNanchangChina
  6. 6.School of Earth Sciences and ResourcesChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  7. 7.School of Earth SciencesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  8. 8.Wuhan Centre for China Geological SurveyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations