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Environmental Aspects of Herbicide Use Under Intensive Agriculture Scenario of Punjab

  • Pervinder Kaur
  • Paawan Kaur
  • Makhan Singh Bhullar
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 12)

Abstract

Herbicides have become popular for weed control in field and horticultural crops globally as well as in India. Though herbicides provide economical and selective control of weeds and significantly enhance crop productivity, their extensive and indiscriminate use is likely to exert residual toxic effects on non-target species including crops, aquatic life and human health. In this context, the judicious use of herbicides and the regular monitoring of build-up of herbicide residues in different commodities their bio-magnification and bio-accumulation in the environment is of utmost importance. The soil-environment interactions determine the fate of the herbicide after application on target species. Rice-wheat is the most dominant cropping system in Indian Punjab. The environmental aspects of long-term herbicides use in rice-wheat and other cropping systems like maize followed by wheat, chickpea or fieldpea, and crops with particular reference to sub-humid and sub-tropical climate of have been reviewed and discussed in this chapter. In this region, the harvest time residues in soil and crops produce of commonly-used herbicides when applied at field doses were found either below the detectable limits or below the maximum residue limit, even after their continuous and long-term application. The half-life of popular herbicides in soil varied from 6.4 to 48.5 days. The herbicides adsorption was positively related to soil organic matter and clay content, and herbicides moved up to 30 cm soil depth. It was concluded that the use of herbicides at recommended doses for weed management in different crops, can be considered safe to food and environment under Indian Punjab conditions.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pervinder Kaur
    • 1
  • Paawan Kaur
    • 2
  • Makhan Singh Bhullar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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