Advertisement

Utility of Lime and Red Mud in Clay Soil Stabilization

  • M. Aswathy
  • U. Salini
  • V. G. Gayathri
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 16)

Abstract

Large amount of industrial wastes are generated from various factories in India and are simply being disposed without any major applications. Alternative materials are to be adopted as a construction material so as to minimize the use of natural resources. Red mud (RM) is generated as a waste material during the production of alumina from bauxite, and it comes to around 40% of the bauxite used for the production. The paper presents the possibility of using red mud as a stabilizing material. The study examines the effect of red mud on behavior of clays by carrying out compaction test, CBR tests, and UCC tests for different percentages of red mud. The red mud soil mix is further treated with lime to understand whether more soil can be replaced by red mud on lime treatment. It was seen that the highest maximum dry density (MDD), UCS, and CBR values were obtained for 15% red mud in soil. On further treatment with 2% of lime, 20% red mud in soil showed more strength compared to 15% red mud in soil ensuring that more soil can be replaced by red mud on treating with lime.

Keywords

Compressive strength Red mud Stabilization Lime 

References

  1. Amritphale, S. S., & Patel, M. (1987). Utilization of red mud, fly ash for manufacturing bricks with pyrophyllite. Silicates Industriels, 3–4, 31.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, F. G. (1988). Stabilization and treatment of clay soils with lime. Ground Engineering, 21(1), 10–15.Google Scholar
  3. Bhuvaneshwari, S., Robinson, R. G., & Gandhi, S. R. (2014). Behaviour of lime treated cured expansive soil composites. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 44(3), 278–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng, J., Ge, W., Su, M., Li, X. (1980). Sulfoaluminate cement series. In Proceedings of 7th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (Vol. 3, pp. 381–386), Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Greaves, H. M. (1996). An introduction to lime stabilization. In Proceedings of Seminar on Lime Stabilization (pp. 5–12), Loughborough University, Thomas Telford, London.Google Scholar
  6. Kara, M., & Emrullahoglu, F. (1994). The utilization of Seydisehir red mudas the construction material. In Proceedings of 2nd International Ceramic Congress (Vol. 1, pp. 181–189), Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  7. Kehagia, F. (2008). An innovative geotechnical application of bauxite residue. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 13(G), 1–9.Google Scholar
  8. Kohno, K., Amo, K., Ogawa, Y., & Ikezoe, Y. (1993). Effect of admixture consisting of finely ground silica and red mud on properties of high strength concrete for products. In Proceedings of the 4th EASEC (Vol. 1437), Seoul I.Google Scholar
  9. Li, L. Y. (1998). Properties of red mud tailings produced under varying process conditions. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 124(3), 254–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Newson, T., Dyer, T., Adam, C., & Sharp, S. (2006). Effect of structure on the geotechnical properties of bauxite residue. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(2), 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pera, J., Boumaza, R., & Ambroise, J. (1997). Development of pozzolanic pigment from red mud. Cement and Concrete Research, 27(10), 1513–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Puppala, A. J., Madhyannapu, R. S., Nazarian, S., Yuan, D., & Hoyos, L. (2007). Deep soil mixing technology for mitigation of pavement roughness. Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, USA, Report No. FHWA/TX-08/0–5179–1.Google Scholar
  13. Rao, S. M., & Shivananda, P. (2005). Role of curing temperature in progress of lime–soil reactions. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 23(1), 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rao, S. M., & Thyagaraj, T. (2003). Lime slurry stabilization of an expansive soil. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Geotechnical Engineering (Vol. 156, No. 3, pp. 139–146).Google Scholar
  15. Rout, S., Sahoo, T., & Das, S. K. (2012). Utility of red mud as an embankment material. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 06, 1645–1651.Google Scholar
  16. Sherwood, P. T. (1993). Soil stabilisation with cement and lime. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  17. Singh, M., Upadhayay, S. N., & Prasad, P. M. (1996). Preparation of special cements from red mud. Waste Management, 6(8), 665–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sundaram, R., & Gupta, S. (2010). Constructing foundations on red mud. In 6th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics (pp. 1172–1175). New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  19. Sutar, H., Mishra, S. C., & Sahoo, S. K. (2014). Progress of red mud utilization: An overview. American Chemical Science Journal, 4(3), 255–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Thyagaraj, T., Rao, S. M., Suresh, P. S., & Salini, U. (2012). Laboratory studies on stabilization of an expansive soil by lime precipitation technique. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering ASCE, 24(8), 1067–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thyagaraj, T., & Zodinsanga, S. (2014). Swell–shrink behaviour of lime precipitation treated soil. Ground Improvement, 167, 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yalcin, N., & Sevinc, V. (2000). Utilization of bauxite waste in ceramic glazes. Ceramics International, 26, 485–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sarabhai Institute of Science and TechnologyThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.National Transportation Planning and Research CentreThiruvananthapuramIndia

Personalised recommendations