Plagiarism and Copyright, Acknowledgements, Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

  • M. K. Ravindran
  • Balaji Zacharia
  • Antony Roy


  • It is the responsibility of the writer to acknowledge a source, context and genres of their writing.

  • Plagiarism can destroy the self and academic reputation of an author.

  • Copyright violation is not the same as plagiarism, though both are closely related.

  • Copyright protects and rewards the creativity of the original author. Legal action can be taken by the owner against anyone who engages in infringement of the copyright of his/her own work.

  • Conflict of interest is important in any research work because it can interfere with trustworthiness of a researcher’s judgement

  • Consent can be either implied consent or expressed consent. It is necessary for photographing, revealing the identity of the patient while publishing and enrolling patients for clinical trial and research project



Acknowledgement is a gesture that allows us to thank all the individuals who helped to make the project a successful one. A standard pattern for writing an acknowledgement letter has not been described. In thesis, a single page usually following the contents page is allotted for acknowledgement. The investigator mentions gratitude to the individuals who helped in the research in order of their importance. The usual format includes acknowledging the guide and co- guides, followed by other faculty in the department in order of seniority. This is then followed by acknowledging the administrators of the institute for facilitating the research. The colleagues, family members and the involved patients are then acknowledged. The rendering must be concise and without emotion. However, when the thesis is converted to a manuscript for publication, acknowledgemnt as two to three concise statements is included at the end of manuscript, before the references. This will include acknowledgements for the funding sources if any and to other contributors to the study who, however, doesn’t satisfy the authorship criteria. All the contributors to the project need not be co-authors and in such circumstances the statement of acknowledgement becomes a polite gesture of recognising their assistance. It is common practise in many institutions to provide a copy of the completed research project to the contributors. Acknowledgements boost researcher morale and promote further cooperation especially when one or more of the contributors do not receive authorship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. K. Ravindran
    • 1
  • Balaji Zacharia
    • 2
  • Antony Roy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineGovernment Medical CollegeKozhikodeIndia
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsGovernment Medical CollegeKozhikodeIndia

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