Advertisement

Governing the Urban Commons: Experimentalist Governance for Resilient Climate Co-benefits Regime in Asian Megacities

  • Antonio José Junqueira Botelho
Chapter

Abstract

A main challenge facing Asian and Latin American cities seeking win-win intervention toward a sustainable maximization of climate co-benefits lies in the complex governance of policy implementation. These urban commons are nested within multiple governmental levels (federal, regional, state, metropolitan, province, county, and municipal) and have diverse institutional arrangements for the provision of services and infrastructure to their population as well as for the promotion of development and a healthy environment. Further, they also have contrasting arrangements for both aggregating and processing demands (shaping patterns of collective action), delivering results (implementation), and communicating outputs to their different constituencies. Thus, the practical politics of urban climate co-benefits policy implementation is fraught with conflict and misunderstandings. These are further amplified in the urban commons by the long-term, fragmented, and uncertain nature of the co-benefits. This paper suggests that the experimentalist governance may contribute to the construction of a resilient governance framework for the implementation of policy toward climate co-benefits. The approach was originally developed to provide a resilient, self-evolving analytic routine for the design of experimentalist governance of sticky, complex, multilevel policy problems under conditions of strategic uncertainty. As it is informed by a pragmatic, practice-oriented experimentalism theory, it promotes deliberation and self-calculation in recursive relations among actors with diverse interests and views; analogously one can suggest that it may also incorporate the diverse and contradictory relations among urban commons’ governmental actors and stakeholders, as well as recipient citizens, the last critical link in the implementation phase. The wide scope of recent applications of experimentalism governance to build alternative frameworks for the promotion of policy regimes in contexts characterized by strategic uncertainty, including global and transnational climate change regimes, seem to indicate the promise of its application to the implementation of climate co-benefits policy in urban commons.

Keywords

Experimentalist governance Urban sustainability Asian cities 

References

  1. Aldy JE (2014) The crucial role of policy surveillance in international climate policy. Clim Chang 126:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aligica PD (2014) Institutional diversity and political economy: the Ostroms and beyond. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 48–52Google Scholar
  3. Andonova LB, Betsill MM, Bulkeley H (2009) Transnational climate governance. Glob Environ Polit 9(2):52–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews RW, Entwistle TW (2013) Public service efficiency: reframing the debate. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Auld G, Mallett A, Burlica B, Nolan-Poupart F, Slater R (2014) Evaluating the effects of policy innovations: lessons from a systematic review of policies promoting low-carbon technology. Glob Environ Chang 29:444–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backstrand K (2008) Accountability of network climate governance: the rise of transnational climate partnerships. Glob Environ Polit 8(3):74–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartenberger M, Szesciło D (2016) The benefits and risks of experimental co-production: the case of urban redesign in Vienna. Public Adm 94(2):509–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bénabou R, Tirole J (2010) Individual and corporate social responsibility. Economica 77(305):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergek A, Jacobsson S, Carlsson B, Lindmark S, Rickne A (2008) Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: a scheme of analysis. Res Policy 37:407–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkhout F, Angel D, Wieczorek AJ (2009) Sustainability transitions in developing Asia: are alternative development pathways likely? Technol Forecast Soc Chang 76:215–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkhout F, Marcotullio P, Hanaoka T (2012) Understanding energy transitions. Sustain Sci 7:109–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biesenbender S, Tosun J (2014) Domestic politics and the diffusion of international policy innovations: how does accommodation happen? Glob Environ Chang 29:424–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Börzel TA (2012) Experimentalist governance in the EU: the emperor’s new clothes? Regul Gov 6:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridges A (2016) The role of institutions in sustainable urban governance. Nat Res Forum 40:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bulkeley H, Castán Broto V (2013) Government by experiment? Global cities and the governing of climate change. Trans Inst Br Geogr 38:361–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bulkeley HA, Castán Broto VC, Edwards GA (2014a) An urban politics of climate change: experimentation and the governing of socio-technical transitions. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Bulkeley H, Castán Broto V, Maassen A (2014b) Low-carbon transitions and the reconfiguration of urban infrastructure. Urban Stud 51:1471–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bulkeley H, Coenen L, Frantzeskaki N, Hartmann C, Kronsell A, Mai L, Marvin S, McCormick K, van Steenbergen F, Voytenko Palgan Y (2016) Urban living labs: governing urban sustainability transitions. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 22:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castán Broto V (2017) Urban governance and the politics of climate change. World Dev 93:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castán Broto V, Bulkeley H (2013a) Maintaining climate change experiments: urban political ecology and the everyday reconfiguration of urban infrastructure. Int J Urban Reg Res 37(6):1934–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castán Broto V, Bulkeley H (2013b) A survey of urban climate change experiments in 100 cities. Glob Environ Chang 23:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dalkmann H, Brannigan C (2007) Transport and climate change. Sourcebook Module 5e. GTZ, EschbornGoogle Scholar
  23. De Burca G (2010) New governance and experimentalism. Wisconsin Law Rev 227:227–238Google Scholar
  24. De Búrca G, Keohane RO, Sabel CF (2013) New modes of pluralist global governance. N Y Univ J Int Law Polit 45:723–786Google Scholar
  25. De Búrca G, Keohane RO, Sabel CF (2014) Global experimentalist governance. Br J Polit Sci 44:477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dewey J (1927) The public and its problems. Holt, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Dorf MC, Sabel CF (1998) A constitution of democratic experimentalism. Columbia Law Rev 98(2):267–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eckert S, Börzel TA (2012) Experimentalist governance: an introduction. Regul Gov 6:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Farla J, Markard J, Raven R, Coenen L (2012) Sustainability transitions in the making: a closer look at actors, strategies and resources. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 79:991–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fledderus J, Brandsen T, Honingh M (2014) Restoring trust through the co-production of public services: a theoretical elaboration. Public Management Review 16:424–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fossum JE (2012) Reflections on experimentalist governance. Regul Gov 6:394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fransen L (2013) The embeddedness of responsible business practice: exploring the interaction between national-institutional environments and corporate social responsibility. J Bus Ethics 115(2):213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geels FW (2002) Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: a multi-level perspective and a case-study. Res Policy 31:1257–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geels FW (2005) The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical systems: a multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from horse-drawn carriages to automobiles (1860–1930). Tech Anal Strat Manag 17:445–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geels FW, Schot J (2007) Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways. Res Policy 36:399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Geels FW, Schot J (2010) The dynamics of sociotechnical transitions—a socio-technical perspective. In: Grin J, Rotmans J, Schot J (eds) Transitions to sustainable development. New directions in the study of long term transformative change. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Green JF (2013) Rethinking private authority: agents and entrepreneurs in global environmental governance. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Green JF, Sterner T, Wagner GA (2014) A balance of bottom-up and top-down in linking climate policies. Nat Clim Chang 4:1064–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hekkert MP, Suurs RAA, RAA NSO, Kuhlmann S, Smits REHM (2007) Functions of innovation systems: a new approach for analyzing technological change. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 74:413–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hickmann T (2015) Rethinking authority in global climate governance: how transnational climate initiatives relate to the international climate regime. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Hildén M (2014) Evaluation, assessment, and policy innovation: exploring the links in relation to emissions trading. Environ Polit 23:839–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hildén M, Jordan A, Rayner T (2014) Climate policy innovation: developing an evaluation perspective. Environ Polit 23:884–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hodson M, Marvin S (2009) Cities mediating technological transitions: understanding visions, intermediation and consequences. Tech Anal Strat Manag 21:515–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hommels A, Peters P, Bijker WE (2007) Techno therapy or nurtured niches? Technology studies and the evaluation of radical innovations. Res Policy 36:1088–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoogma R, Kemp R, Schot J, Truffer B (2002) Experimenting for sustainable transport. The approach of strategic Niche management. EF&N Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobsson S, Johnson A (2000) The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research. Energy Policy 28:625–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jordan A, Huitema D (2014) Policy innovation in a changing climate: sources, patterns and effects. Glob Environ Chang 29:387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jordan A, Huitema D, Hildén M, Van Asselt H, Rayner T, Schoenefeld J et al (2015) Emergence of a polycentric climate governance and its future prospects. Nat Clim Chang 5:977–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kemp R (1994) Technology and the transition to environmental sustainability. The problem of technological regime shifts. Futures 26:1023–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kemp R, Schot J, Hoogma R (1998) Regime shifts to sustainability through processes of niche formation: the approach of strategic niche management. Tech Anal Strat Manag 10:175–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kern F, Smith A (2008) Restructuring energy systems for sustainability? Energy transition policy in the Netherlands. Energy Policy 36:4093–4103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kivimaa P, Hilden M, Huitema D, Jordan A, Newig J (2017) Experiments in climate governance: a systematic review of research on energy and built environment transitions. J Clean Prod 169:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laakso S, Berg A, Annala M (2017) Dynamics of experimental governance: a meta-study of functions and uses of climate governance experiments. J Clean Prod 169:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lachapelle E, Paterson M (2013) Drivers of national climate policy. Clim Policy 13:547–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liebman JS, Sabel CF (2002) A public laboratory Dewey barely imagined: the emerging model of school governance and legal reform. N Y Univ Rev Law Soc Chang 28(2):183–304Google Scholar
  56. Loorbach D (2010) Transition management for sustainable development: a prescriptive, complexity-based governance framework. Governance 23:161–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mansbridge J (2014) The role of the state in governing the commons. Environ Sci Pol 36:8–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Markard J, Raven R, Truffer B (2012) Sustainability transitions: an emerging field of research and its prospects. Res Policy 41:955–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marsden G, Shire J, Ferreira A, Phillips I, Cass N (2014) Resilience and adaptation: an activity systems approach. In: Universities’ Transport Study Group, Archives. Universities’ Transport Study Group (UTSG) 46th Annual Conference, 6–8 January 2014, Newcastle University, NewcastleGoogle Scholar
  60. Matschoss K, Heiskanen E (2017) Making it experimental in several ways: the work of intermediaries in raising the ambition level in local climate initiatives. J Clean Prod 169:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mossberger K, Stoker G (2001) The evolution of urban regime theory: the challenge of conceptualization. Urban Aff Rev 36:810–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Newel P, Bulkeley H, Turner K, Shaw C, Caney S, Shove E, Pidgeon N (2015) Governance traps in climate change politics: re-framing the debate in terms of responsibilities and rights. WIREs Clim Chang 6:535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ostrom E (2005) Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  64. Ostrom E (2010) Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Glob Environ Chang 20:550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ostrom E (2014) A polycentric approach for coping with climate change. Ann Econ Financ 15:71–108Google Scholar
  66. Ostrom E, Janssen MA, Anderies JM (2007) Going beyond panaceas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15176–15178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Overdevest C, Zeitlin J (2014) Assembling an experimentalist regime: transnational governance interactions in the forest sector. Regul Gov 8:22–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Puppim de Oliveira JA (2013) Learning how to align climate, environmental and development objectives: lessons from the implementation of climate cobenefits initiatives in urban Asia. J Clean Prod 58:7–14Google Scholar
  69. Puppim de Oliveira JA, Doll CNH (2017) Introduction. In: Doll CNH, Puppim de Oliveira JA (eds) Urbanization and climate co-benefits: implementation of win-win interventions in cities. Routledge, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  70. Rangoni B (2017) Regulation after agentification: hierarchy and uncertainty in the case of energy. TARN Working Paper 9, May, 20 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Raven R, Geels FW (2010) Socio-cognitive evolution in niche development: comparative analysis of biogas development in Denmark and The Netherlands (1973–2004). Technovation 30:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rayner S (2010) How to eat an elephant: a bottom-up approach to climate policy. Clim Policy 10:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rayner S, Caine M (2014) The Hartwell approach to climate policy. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rotmans J, Kemp R, van Asselt M (2001) More evolution than revolution: transition management in public policy. Foresight 3:15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sabel CF (1994) Learning by monitoring: the institutions of economic development. In: Smelser NJ, Swedberg R (eds) Handbook of economic sociology. Princeton University Press/Russell Sage Foundation, Princeton/New York, pp 137–165Google Scholar
  76. Sabel CF, Zeitlin J (eds) (2010) Experimentalist governance in the European Union: towards a new architecture. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  77. Sabel CF (2012) Dewey, democracy, and democratic experimentalism. Contemp Pragmatism 9(2):35–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sabel CF, Simon WH (2011) Minimalism and experimentalism in the administrative state. Georgetown Law Rev 100:53–93Google Scholar
  79. Sabel CF, Victor DG (2017) Governing global problems under uncertainty: making bottom-up climate policy work. Clim Chang 144:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sabel CF, Zeitlin J (2008) Learning from difference: the new architecture of experimentalist governance in the EU. Eur Law J 14(3):271–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sabel CF, Zeitlin J (2012a) Experimentalist governance. In: Levi-Faur D (ed) The Oxford handbook of governance. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 169–183Google Scholar
  82. Sabel CF, Zeitlin J (2012b) Experimentalism in the EU: common ground and persistent differences. Regul Gov 6:410–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schot J, Geels FW (2008) Strategic niche management and sustainable innovation journeys: theory, findings, research agenda, and policy. Tech Anal Strat Manag 20:537–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schuitmaker TJ (2012) Identifying and unravelling persistent problems. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 79:1021–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sengers F, Raven R (2015) Toward a spatial perspective on niche development: the case of Bus Rapid Transit. Environ Innov Soc Trans 17:166–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sengers F, Wieczorek AJ, Raven R (2016) Experimenting for sustainability transitions: a systematic literature review. Technol Forecast Soc Chang,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.031
  87. Smith A (2007) Translating sustainabilities between green niches and sociotechnical regimes. Tech Anal Strat Manag 19:427–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith A, Stirling A, Berkhout F (2005) The governance of sustainable socio-technical transitions. Res Policy 34:1491–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith A, Voß J-P, Grin G (2010) Innovation studies and sustainability transitions: the allure of the multi-level perspective and its challenges. Res Policy 39:435–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Simon D, Leck H (2015) Understanding climate adaptation and transformation challenges in African cities. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 13:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stephens JC, Wilson EJ, Peterson TR (2008) Socio-political evaluation of energy deployment (SPEED): an integrated research framework analyzing energy technology deployment. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 75:1224–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steurer R (2013) Disentangling governance: a synoptic view of regulation by government business and civil society. Policy Sci 46(4):387–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stewart RB, Oppenheimer M, Rudyk B (2013) A new strategy for global climate protection. Clim Chang 120:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Termeer C, Dewulf A, Breeman G (2013) Governance of wicked climate adaptation problems. In: Knieling J, Filho WL (eds) Climate change governance. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tosun L, Koos S, Shore J (2016) Co-governing common goods: interaction patterns of private and public actors. Polit Soc 35(1):1–12Google Scholar
  96. Van den Bosch S, Rotmans J (2010) Deepening, broadening and scaling up a framework for steering transition experiments. Knowledge centre for sustainable system innovations and transitions, DelftGoogle Scholar
  97. Van der Heijden J (2014) Experimentation in policy design. Policy Sci 47:249–266Google Scholar
  98. Van der Heijden J (2016) Experimental governance for low-carbon buildings and cities: value and limits of local action networks. Cities 53:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verdun A (2012) Experimentalist governance in the European Union: a commentary. Regul Gov 6:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Voß J, Simons A (2014) Instrument constituencies and the supply side of policy innovation: the social life of emissions trading. Environ Polit 23:735–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wieczorek A, Raven R, Berkhout F (2015) Transnational linkages in sustainability experiments: a typology and the case of solar photovoltaic energy in India. Environ Innov Soc Trans 17:149–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IUPERJ, Candido Mendes UniversityRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations