Preoperative Preparations for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Jiangsheng Huang
  • Jixiong Hu
  • Xianling Liu
  • Zhongkun ZuoEmail author
  • Tenglong Tang


  • As the most common primary hepatic malignant tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis. The main risk factors of HCC are chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

  • The diagnosis of HCC may be established noninvasively on imaging, and treatment may be initiated without confirmation of biopsy [1].

  • At present, major clinical practice guidelines approve dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the extracellular contrast agent as the preferred choice of HCC detection. Unenhanced, hepatic arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase should be included in these examinations. Both patterns show an excellent sensitivity for HCC nodules >2 cm, moderate for HCCs sized 1–2 cm, and poor for HCCs <1 cm, and which pattern is superior is not yet clear.

  • Imaging staging refers to the size and number of HCC lesions, the presence of macrovascular invasion and extrahepatic metastases based on imaging examinations, it is very important in clinical decision making and treatment strategies optimizing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiangsheng Huang
    • 1
  • Jixiong Hu
    • 2
  • Xianling Liu
    • 3
  • Zhongkun Zuo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tenglong Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Minimally Invasive SurgeryThe Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South UniversityChangshaPR China
  2. 2.Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Hepatobiliary Disease ResearchThe Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South UniversityChangshaPR China
  3. 3.Department of OncologyThe Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South UniversityChangshaPR China

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