Strengthening World Heritage Protection in the Pacific: Lessons from Solomon Islands

  • Stephanie Clair Price
Part of the Palgrave Series in Asia and Pacific Studies book series (PSAPS)


Drawing upon findings in previous chapters, this chapter identifies key lessons from Solomon Islands’ experience and the Pacific more broadly. They concern the involvement of Pacific Island States in the World Heritage Convention regime, the nomination of Pacific sites, and the protection of Pacific World Heritage. The chapter also discusses some options that could be implemented within the ambit of the Convention regime, which could potentially strengthen the protection of World Heritage in the region. A key theme of the chapter is the need to better harmonize international, national, and local perspectives on World Heritage conservation. In addition, the integral role that local communities play in the protection of East Rennell under both customary and State law must be acknowledged.


Articles, Books and Reports

  1. Allen, Matthew, Sinclair Dinnen, Daniel Evans, Rebecca Monson, Justice Delivered Locally: Systems, Challenges and Innovations in Solomon Islands (World Bank, 2013)Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, Inger, ‘Today Defines Tomorrow: World Heritage as Litmus Test for Action on Agreements’ (2016) 79 World Heritage 4Google Scholar
  3. Aswani, Shankar, ‘Customary Sea Tenure in Oceania as a Case of Rights-Based Fishery Management: Does it Work?’ (2005) 15 Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 285Google Scholar
  4. Baines, Graham, Solomon Islands is Unprepared to Manage a Minerals-Based Economy, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper 2015/6 (Australian National University, 2015)Google Scholar
  5. Ballard, Chris and Meredith Wilson, ‘Unseen Monuments: Managing Melanesian Cultural Landscapes’ in Ken Taylor and Jane L Lennon (eds), Managing Cultural Landscapes (Routledge, 2012) 130Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, Judith, ‘Forestry, Public Land, and the Colonial Legacy in Solomon Islands’ (1995) 7(2) Contemporary Pacific 243Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, Judith, Pacific Forest: A History of Resource Control and Contest in Solomon Islands, c 1800–1997 (Brill Academic Publishers Inc, 2000)Google Scholar
  8. Bennett, Judith, Roots of Conflict in Solomon Islands – Though Much is Taken, Much Abides: Legacies of Tradition and Colonialism, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper (Australian National University, 2002)Google Scholar
  9. Boer, Ben, Solomon Islands: Review of Environmental Law (SPREP, 1993)Google Scholar
  10. Breen, Colin, ‘Advocacy, International Development and World Heritage Sites in Sub-Saharan Africa’ (2007) 39(3) World Archaeology 355Google Scholar
  11. Brown, Steve, ‘Poetics and Politics: Bikini Atoll and World Heritage Listing’ in Sue O’Connor, Denis Byrne and Sally Brockwell (eds), Transcending the Culture-Nature Divide in Cultural Heritage: Views from the Asia-Pacific Region (ANU E Press, 2012) 35Google Scholar
  12. Clarke, Pepe and Charles Taylor Gillespie, Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment and Management of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Fiji (IUCN, 2009)Google Scholar
  13. Corrin, Jennifer, Background Analysis of REDD + and Forest Carbon Rights in Solomon Islands (Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 2012)Google Scholar
  14. Deegan, Naomi, ‘The Local-Global Nexus in the Politics of World Heritage: Space for Community Development?’ in Marie-Theres Albert, Marielle Richon, Marie José Viñals and Andrea Witcomb (eds), Community Development through World Heritage, World Heritage Papers 31 (UNESCO, 2012) 77Google Scholar
  15. Denham, Tim, ‘Book review: Kuk Heritage: Issues and Debates in Papua New Guinea, Edited by Andrew Strathern and Pamela J Stewart’ (1999) 34(2) Archaeology in Oceania 89Google Scholar
  16. Dingwall, Paul, Report on the Reactive Monitoring Mission to East Rennell, Solomon Islands, 21–29 October 2012 (IUCN, 2013)Google Scholar
  17. Eboreime, Joseph, ‘Nigeria’s Customary Laws and Practices in the Protection of Cultural Heritage with Special Reference to the Benin Kingdom’ in Webber Ndoro and Gilbert Pwiti (eds), Legal Frameworks for the Protection of Immoveable Cultural Heritage in Africa, ICCROM Conservation Studies 5 (ICCROM, 2005) 9Google Scholar
  18. Environment and Conservation Division (Solomon Islands Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management, and Meteorology) Lake Tegano World Heritage Site, East Rennell, Rennell-Bellona Province: A Report on Community Consultation Visit on the Status of East Rennell World Heritage Site, 5–12 October 2011 (SIG, 2012)Google Scholar
  19. Foale, Simon, ‘Where’s Our Development? Landowner Aspirations and Environmentalist Agendas in Western Solomon Islands’ (2001) 2(2) Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 44Google Scholar
  20. Foale, Simon, Phillipa Cohen, Stephanie Januchowski-Hartley, Amelia Wenger and Martha Macintyre, ‘Tenure and Taboos: Origins and Implications for Fisheries in the Pacific’ (2011) 12 Fish and Fisheries 357Google Scholar
  21. Forrest, Craig and Jennifer Corrin, ‘A Model Law to Implement the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage and its Possible Application in Plural Legal Regimes in Pacific Small Island States: A Case Study of Solomon Islands’ (Paper presented at Solomon Islands National University Workshop, Honiara, December 2014)
  22. Frazer, Ian, ‘The Struggle for Control of Solomon Island Forests’ (1997) 9(1) Contemporary Pacific 39Google Scholar
  23. Gay, Daniel (ed), Solomon Islands Diagnostic Trade Integration Study 2009 Report (Solomon Islands Government, 2009)Google Scholar
  24. Graham, Brian, Gregory J Ashworth and John E Tunbridge, A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy (Arnold, 2000)Google Scholar
  25. Hughes, Tony and Ali Tuhanuku, Logging and Mining in Rennell: Lessons for Solomon Islands. Report to the World Bank and Solomon Islands Government (2015)Google Scholar
  26. Kabutaulaka, Tarcisius Tara, ‘Rumble in the Jungle: Land, Culture and (Un)sustainable Logging in Solomon Islands’ in Antony Hooper (ed), Culture and Sustainable Development in the Pacific (ANU E Press and Asia Pacific Press, 2005)Google Scholar
  27. Kafo, Teddy, ‘Proposed logging threatens World Heritage Lake Tegano’, The Solomon Star, 24 February 2015Google Scholar
  28. Lindsay, Jonathan M, Creating Legal Space for Community-Based Management: Principles and Dilemmas (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 1998)Google Scholar
  29. Logan, William, ‘Cultural Diversity, Cultural Heritage and Human Rights: Towards Heritage Management as Human Rights-Based Cultural Practice’ (2012) 18(3) International Journal of Heritage Studies 231Google Scholar
  30. Macintyre, Martha and Simon Foale, ‘Global Imperatives and Local Desires: Competing Economic and Environmental Interests in Melanesian Communities’ in Victoria Lockwood (ed), Globalisation and Culture Change in the Pacific Islands (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004) 149Google Scholar
  31. Marnell, John, ‘Concerns Raised Over East Rennell Logging Application’, Sunday Isles, 25 March 2012, 9Google Scholar
  32. McDonald, Jan, Marine Resource Management and Conservation in Solomon Islands: Roles, Responsibilities and Opportunities (Griffith Law School, 2010)Google Scholar
  33. McDonnell, Siobhan, Joseph Foukana and Alice Pollard, Building a Pathway for Successful Land Reform in Solomon Islands (2015)Google Scholar
  34. Meskell, Lynn, Claudia Liuzza and Nicholas Brown, ‘World Heritage Regionalism: UNESCO from Europe to Asia’ (2015) 22 International Journal of Cultural Property 437Google Scholar
  35. Mumma, Albert, ‘Framework for Legislation on Immoveable Cultural Heritage in Africa’ in Webber Ndoro, Albert Mumma and George Abungu (eds), Cultural Heritage and the Law: Protecting Immoveable Heritage in English-Speaking Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, ICCROM Conservation Studies 8 (ICCROM, 2008) 97Google Scholar
  36. Oviedo, Gonzalo and Tatjana Puschkarsky, ‘World Heritage and Rights-Based Approaches to Nature Conservation’ (2012) 18(3) International Journal of Heritage Studies 285Google Scholar
  37. Pederson, Marianne, Conservation Complexities: Conservationists’ and Local Landowners’ Different Perceptions of Development and Conservation in Dandaun Province, Papua New Guinea, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper 7 (The Australian National University, 2013)Google Scholar
  38. Smith, Anita, ‘The World Heritage Pacific 2009 Programme’ in Anita Smith (ed), World Heritage in a Sea of Islands: Pacific 2009 Programme, World Heritage Papers 34 (UNESCO, 2012) 2Google Scholar
  39. Smith, Anita, ‘World Heritage and Outstanding Universal Value in the Pacific Islands’ (2015) 21(2) International Journal of Heritage Studies 177Google Scholar
  40. Solomon Islands Government, State Party Report on the State of Conservation of the East Rennell World Heritage Area (Solomon Islands) (SIG, 2012)Google Scholar
  41. Solomon Islands Government, State Party Report on the State of Conservation of the East Rennell World Heritage Area (Solomon Islands) (SIG, 2013)Google Scholar
  42. Solomon Islands Government, State Party Report on the State of Conservation of the East Rennell World Heritage Area (Solomon Islands) (SIG, 2014)Google Scholar
  43. Solomon Islands Government, State Party Report on the State of Conservation of the East Rennell World Heritage Site (SIG, 2017)Google Scholar
  44. Solomon Islands Office of the Auditor General, An Auditor-General’s Insights into Corruption in Solomon Islands Government, National Parliament Paper 48 (2007)Google Scholar
  45. Stanley, Scott Alexander, REDD Feasibility Study for East Rennell World Heritage Site, Solomon Islands (Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 2013)Google Scholar
  46. Trau, Adam M, ‘The Glocalisation of World Heritage at Chief Roi Mata’s Domain, Vanuatu’ (2012) 24(3) Historic Environment 4Google Scholar
  47. Trau, Adam M, Chris Ballard, Meredith Wilson, ‘Bafa Zon: Localising World Heritage at Chief Roi Mata’s Domain, Vanuatu’ (2014) 20(1) International Journal of Heritage Studies 86Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO/ICCROM/ICOMOS/IUCN, Managing Natural World Heritage, World Heritage Resource Manual (UNESCO, 2012)Google Scholar
  49. van der Ploeg, Rick, ‘Welcome Address by the Chair of the conference’ in Eléonore de Merode, Rieks Smeets and Carol Westrik (eds), Linking Universal and Local Values: Managing a Sustainable Future for World Heritage, World Heritage Papers 13 (UNESCO, 2004) 24Google Scholar
  50. Veitayaki, Joeli, Akosita D R Nakoro, Tareguci Sigarua and Nanise Bulai, ‘On Cultural Factors and Marine Managed Areas in Fiji’ in Jolie Liston, Geoffrey Clark and Dwight Alexander (eds), Pacific Island Heritage: Archaeology, Identity and Community (ANU E Press, 2011) 37Google Scholar
  51. West, Paige and Dan Brockington, ‘An Anthropological Perspective on Some Unexpected Consequences of Protected Areas’ (2006) 20(3) Conservation Biology 609Google Scholar
  52. Wilson, Meredith, Chris Ballard, Richard Matanik and Topie Warry, ‘Community as the First C: Conservation and Development through Tourism at Chief Roi Mata’s Domain, Vanuatu’ in Anita Smith (ed), World Heritage in a Sea of Islands: Pacific 2009 Programme, World Heritage Papers 34 (UNESCO, 2012) 68Google Scholar

Legislation and Bills: Fiji

  1. Heritage Bill 2016 (Bill no. 10 of 2016)Google Scholar

Legislation and Bills: Kiribati

  1. Environment Act 1999 Google Scholar
  2. Phoenix Islands Protected Area Regulations 2008 Google Scholar

Legislation and Bills: Solomon Islands

  1. Biosecurity Act 2013 Google Scholar
  2. Environment Act 1998 Google Scholar
  3. Fisheries Management Act 2015 Google Scholar
  4. Forest Resources and Timber Utilisation Act (Cap. 40) Google Scholar
  5. Mines and Minerals Act (Cap. 42) Google Scholar
  6. Protected Areas Act 2010 Google Scholar
  7. Protected Areas Regulations 2012 Google Scholar
  8. Solomon Islands Independence Order 1978, sch (Constitution of Solomon Islands)Google Scholar


  1. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, opened for signature 16 November 1972, 1037 UNTS 151 (entered into force 17 December 1975)Google Scholar

United Nations Documents

  1. Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention, WHC GA Res 20 GA 13, 20th sess, UN Doc WHC-15/20.GA/15 (20 November 2015)Google Scholar
  2. Presentation of the World Heritage Programme for the Pacific, WHC 31st sess, UN Doc WHC-07/31.COM/11C (10 May 2007) annex I (Appeal to the World Heritage Committee from the Pacific Island State Parties)Google Scholar
  3. Reports of the Advisory Bodies, WHC 39th sess, UN Doc WHC-15/39.COM/5B (15 May 2015)Google Scholar
  4. State of Conservation of Properties Inscribed on the World Heritage List, WHC 41st sess, UN Doc WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add (2 June 2017) 26 (East Rennell, Solomon Islands)Google Scholar
  5. State of Conservation of the Properties Inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, WHC 42nd sess, UN Doc WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add.2 (15 June 2018) 17 (East Rennell, Solomon Islands)Google Scholar
  6. UNESCO, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, UN Doc WHC.16/01 (26 October 2016)Google Scholar
  7. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, GA Res 61/295, UN GAOR, 61st sess, 107th plen mtg, Supp No 49, UN Doc A/RES/61/295 (13 September 2007)Google Scholar
  8. WHC Res 29 COM 7B.10, WHC 29th sess, UN Doc WHC-05/29.COM/22 (9 September 2005) 45Google Scholar
  9. WHC Res 31 COM 7B.21, WHC 31st sess, UN Doc WHC-07/31.COM/24 (31 July 2007) 58Google Scholar
  10. WHC Res 33 COM 7B.19, WHC 33rd sess, UN Doc WHC-09/33.COM/20 (20 July 2009) 68Google Scholar
  11. WHC Res 34 COM 7B.17, WHC 34th sess, UN Doc WHC-10/34.COM/20 (3 September 2010) 71Google Scholar
  12. WHC Res 35 COM 12B, WHC 35th sess, UN Doc WHC-11/35.COM/20 (7 July 2011) 266Google Scholar
  13. WHC Res 36 COM 7B.15, WHC 36th sess, UN Doc WHC-12/36.COM/19 (June–July 2012) 63Google Scholar
  14. WHC Res 37 COM 7B.14, WHC 37th sess, UN Doc WHC-13/37.COM/20 (5 July 2013) 68Google Scholar
  15. WHC Res 38 COM 7A.29, WHC 38th sess, UN Doc WHC-14/38.COM/16 (7 July 2014) 39Google Scholar
  16. WHC Res 39 COM 5D, WHC 39th sess, UN Doc WHC-15/39.COM/19 (8 July 2015a) 7Google Scholar
  17. WHC Res 39 COM 7A.16, WHC 39th sess, UN Doc WHC-15/39.COM/19 (8 July 2015b) 30Google Scholar
  18. WHC Res 40 COM 7A.49, WHC 40th sess, UN Doc WHC-16/40.COM/19 (15 November 2016) 68Google Scholar
  19. WHC Res 41 COM 7A.19, WHC 41st sess, UN Doc WHC-17/41.COM/18 (12 July 2017) 35Google Scholar
  20. World Heritage and Sustainable Development, WHC 39th sess, UN Doc WHC-15/39.COM/5B (15 May 2015)Google Scholar


  1. Tagini, Phillip Iro, The Search for King Solomon’s Gold: An Examination of the Policy and Regulatory Framework for Mining in Solomon Islands (PhD Thesis, Australian National University, 2007)Google Scholar
  2. Trau, Adam M, World Heritage at Chief Roi Mata’s Domain: The Global-Local Nexus of Community Heritage Conservation and Tourism Development in Vanuatu (PhD Thesis, University of Western Sydney, 2013)Google Scholar

Internet materials

  1. Alliance of Small Island States, About AOSIS
  2. Model Law for the Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Innovations and Practices
  3. Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute
  4. UNESCO, Model for a National Act on the Protection of Cultural Heritage (2013)
  5. UNESCO, UNESCO Database of National Cultural Heritage Laws


  1. Interview by the author with an officer in the Ministry of Education, who was formerly the focal point for World Heritage within the Solomon Islands National Commission for UNESCO (Honiara, 28 July 2013)Google Scholar
  2. Interview by the author with Joe Horokou, Director of the Environment and Conservation Division of the Ministry of Environment (Honiara, 15 August 2013)Google Scholar
  3. Interview by the author with Malchoir Mataki, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Environment (Honiara, 1 October 2013)Google Scholar


  1. Pacific World Heritage Action Plan 2016–2020 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Clair Price
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations