Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendoscopy

  • Chun Man Ma
  • Tun Hing Lui
  • Tsz Lung Choi
  • Jorge Batista
  • Raymond Peter Lee
  • Cheuk-Hang Sin


The flexor hallucis longus (FHL) is a bipennate muscle that originates from the distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the shaft of the fibula. It passes behind the medial malleolus, deep to the flexor retinaculum. The tendon courses through a fibro-osseous tunnel along the posterior surface of the talus and passes forward on the sole of the foot inside the fibro-osseous tunnel beneath the sustentaculum tali. A strong slip is given to the flexor digitorum longus and forms the master knots of Henry. It ends by inserting into the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe [1].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun Man Ma
    • 1
  • Tun Hing Lui
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Tsz Lung Choi
    • 5
  • Jorge Batista
    • 6
  • Raymond Peter Lee
    • 7
  • Cheuk-Hang Sin
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyNorth District HospitalHong KongChina
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology—Chinese Academy of ScienceShenzhenChina
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyChinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUnited Christian HospitalHong KongChina
  6. 6.Centro Artroscopico Jorge Batista SA- Club Atlético Boca JuniorsBuenos AiresArgentina
  7. 7.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyPrince of Wales HospitalShatinChina
  8. 8.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyPrincess Margaret HospitalKowloonChina

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