Tourism: A Knowledge-Based Activity

  • João Romão
Part of the New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives book series (NFRSASIPER, volume 28)


Contemporary production and consumption systems increasingly integrate immaterial aspects related to knowledge or cultural values and symbols into products and services, often through processes of co-creation, leading to a personalization and adaptation of supply to the needs and motivations of consumers. Tourism plays a prominent role within this emergent creative economy, and the focus on the immaterial aspects of the experience tends to prevail over the material aspects of the destinations, while information and communication technologies appear as crucial tools for the match between differentiation of destinations and market segmentation. The intense development observed in these technologies during the last few decades contributes for the enhancement of co-created tourism experiences while opening new opportunities for the reinforcement of linkages between tourism and other creative activities, along with the potential reinforcement of regional innovation networks, potentially involving a large number of small and decentralized tourism providers. On the other hand, agglomeration effects related to recent urban development contribute for the concentration of creative activities in cities, along with the emergence of a varied supply of flexible and creative tourism products and services. This fast growth of tourism in contemporary cities also raises new challenges for urban planning, not only related to the shared use of spaces, facilities, and infrastructures but also regarding the impacts of tourism on local markets and especially on the housing markets in large-scale urban tourism destinations.


Information Smart tourism Co-creation Smart specialization Creative economies Urban tourism 


  1. Ahvenniemi H, Huovila A, Pinto-Seppä I, Airaksinen M (2017) What are the differences between sustainable and smart cities? Cities 60:234–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al Haija AA (2011) Jordan: tourism and conflict with local communities (2011). Habitat Int 35:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldebert B, Dang R, Longhi C (2011) Innovation in the tourism industry: the case of tourism@. Tour Manag 32:1204–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asheim B, Coenen L (2006) Regional innovation systems in a globalising learning economy. J Technol Transfer 31:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asheim B, Smith HL, Oughton C (2011) Regional innovation systems: theory, empirics and policy. Reg Stud 45(7):875–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avdikos V (2015) Processes of creation and commodification of local collective symbolic capital; a tale of gentrification from Athens. City Cult Soc 6(4):117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balsas C (2004) Measuring the livability of an urban centre: an exploratory study of key performance indicators. Plan Pract Res 19(1):101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barcelona City Council (2017) Barcelona tourism for 2020 a collective strategy for sustainable tourism. Ajuntament de Barcelona, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  9. Binkhorst E, Dekker T (2009) Towards the co-creation tourism experience? J Hosp Mark Manag 18(2–3):311–327Google Scholar
  10. Boes K, Buhalis D, Inversini A (2016) Smart tourism destinations: ecosystems for tourism destination competitiveness. Intl J Tour Cities 2(2):108–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boschma R (2016) Smart specialisation and regional innovation policy. Welsh Econ Rev 24:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. British Council (2010) Mapping the creative industries: a toolkit, Creative and cultural economy series 2. British Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tour Manag 21:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhalis D, Law R (2008) Progress in information technology and tourism management. Tour Manag 29:609–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capello R, Caragliu A, Nijkamp P (2011) Territorial capital and regional growth: increasing returns in knowledge use. Tijdschr Econ Soc Geogr 102(4):385–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caragliu A, Del Bo C, Nijkamp P (2011) Smart cities in Europe. J Urban Technol 18(2):65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castro C, Armario E, Ruiz D (2007) The influence of market heterogeneity on the relationship between a destination’s image and tourists’ future behavior. Tour Manag 28:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen C, Tsai D (2007) How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tour Manag 28:1115–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colomb C, Navy J (2017) Protest and resistance in the tourist city. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooke P (2001) Regional innovation systems, clusters, and the knowledge economy. Ind Corp Chang 10(4):945–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Currid-Halkett E, Scott AJ (2013) The geography of celebrity and glamour: reflections on economy, culture, and desire in the city. City Cult Soc 4:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daskalopoulou I, Petrou A (2009) Urban tourism competitiveness: networks and the regional Asset Base. Urban Stud 46:779–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis M (2006) A planet of slums. Verso, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Domicelj S (1992) Recreational visitation and cultural development: push or pull? Habitat Int 16(3):79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dredge D, Gyimóthy S, Birkbak A, Jensen TE, Madsen AK (2016) The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector: Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris, Impulse paper 9. Aalborg University, AalborgGoogle Scholar
  26. European Commission (2006) Innovating in tourism: how to create a tourism learning area. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  27. European Commission (2011) Creative Europe – a new framework programme for the cultural and creative sectors (2014–2020). European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  28. Foray D, Goddard J, Beldarrain X, Landabaso M, McCann P, Morgan K, Ortega-Argilés R (2012) Guide to research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation. S3P – European Union, Regional Policy, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  29. Fusco-Girard L, Nijkamp P (2009) Cultural tourism and sustainable local development. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall CM, Williams A (2008) Tourism and innovation. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansen T, Winther L (2011) Innovation, regional development and relations between high- and low-tech industries. Eur Urban Reg Stud 18(3):321–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hjalager A (2010) A review of innovation research in tourism. Tour Manag 31:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. ICOMOS (2016) Cultural heritage, the UN sustainable development goals and the new urban agenda. ICOMOS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  34. Jenkins H (2006) Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Kashef M (2016) Urban livability across disciplinary and professional boundaries. Front Archit Res 5:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim J, Fesenmaier DR (2017) Sharing tourism experiences: the Posttrip experience. J Travel Res 56(1):28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kozak M, Rimmington M (2000) Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination. J Travel Res 38:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lin Y, Huang J (2006) Internet blogs as a tourism marketing medium: a case study. J Bus Res 59:1201–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu J, Nijkamp P, Lin D (2017) Urban-rural imbalance and tourism-led growth in China. Ann Tour Res 64:24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lo I, McKercher B, Cheung C, Law R (2011) Tourism and online photography. Tour Manag 32:725–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lundvall B (2002) National systems of production, innovation and competence building. Res Policy 31:213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Malakauskaite A, Navickas V (2010) Level of clusterization and tourism sector competitiveness. Eng Econ 21(1)Google Scholar
  43. Mansson M (2011) Mediatized tourism. Ann Tour Res 38(4):1634–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Martin R (2014) Path dependence and the spatial economy. In: Fischer M, Nijkamp P (eds) Handbook of regional science. Springer, New York, pp 609–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Martin CJ (2016) The sharing economy: a pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism? Ecol Econ 121:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mazanek J (2010) Managing the heterogeneity of city tourists. In: Manzanek J, Wöber K (eds) Analysing international city tourism. Springler, Berlin, pp 81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Medina-Muñoz D, Medina-Muñoz R, Zuñiga-Collazos A (2013) Tourism and innovation in China and Spain: a review of innovation research on tourism. Tour Econ 19(2):319–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meijer A, Thaens M (2018) Urban technological innovation: developing and testing a sociotechnical framework for studying Smart City projects. Urban Aff Rev 54(2):363–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Milio S (2014) Impact of the economic crisis on social, economic and territorial cohesion of the European Union vol. 1. Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  50. Millar C, Choi C (2011) The innovative future of service industries: (anti-)globalization and commensuration. Serv Ind J 31(1):21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Modica M, Reggiani A (2015) Spatial economic resilience: overview and perspectives. Netw Spat Econ 15(2):211–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neffke F, Henning M, Boschma R (2009) How do regions diversify over time? Industry relatedness and the development of new growth paths in regions. Econ Geogr 87(3):237–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neuts B, Romão J, van LEV, Nijkamp P (2013) Describing the relationships between tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty in a segmented and digitalized market. Tour Econ 19(5):987–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neuts B, Romão J, Nijkamp P, Shikida A (2014) A quality assessment of tourist information: the case of nautical tourism at Shiretoko Peninsula. Almatourism 9:24–34Google Scholar
  55. OECD (2014a) Better life index. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  56. OECD (2014b) Tourism and the creative economy. OECD Studies on Tourism, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Piirainen KA, Tanner AN, Alkærsig L (2017) Regional foresight and dynamics of smart specialization: a typology of regional diversification patterns. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 115:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards G (2013) Tourism and creativity in the city. Curr Issue Tour 17(2):119–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Riganti P (2009) From cultural tourism to cultural e-tourism. In: Fusco Girard L, Nijkamp P (eds) Cultural tourism and sustainable local development. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 263–288Google Scholar
  60. Rihova I, Buhalis B, Gouthro MB, Moital M (2018) Customer-to-customer co-creation practices in tourism: lessons from customer-dominant logic. Tour Manag 67:362–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rodríguez I, Williams AM, Hall CM (2014) Tourism innovation policy: implementation and outcomes. Ann Tour Res 49:76–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Romão J, Nijkamp P (2017) A spatial econometric analysis of impacts of innovation, productivity and agglomeration on tourism competitiveness. Curr Issues Tour.
  63. Romão J, Neuts B, Nijkamp P, van LES (2015a) Tourist loyalty and e-services: a comparison of behavioral impacts in Leipzig and Amsterdam. J Urban Technol 22(2):85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Romão J, Neuts B, Nijkamp P, van Leeuwen ES (2015b) Culture, product differentiation and market segmentation: a structural analysis of the motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam. Tour Econ 21(3):455–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Romão J, Kourtit K, Neuts B, Nijkamp P (2017) The smart city as a common place for tourists and residents: a structural analysis on the determinants of urban attractiveness. Cities.
  66. Sabiote-Ortiz CM, Frías-Jamilena DM, Castañeda-García JA (2016) Overall perceived value of a tourism service delivered via different media: a cross-cultural perspective. J Travel Res 55(1):34–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sassen S (2010) The city: its return as a lens for social theory. City Cult Soc 1:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Scott AJ (2007) Capitalism and urbanization in a new key? The cognitive-cultural dimension. Social Forces 85(4):1465–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Scott AJ (2017) The constitution of the city. Palgrave Macmillan, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sigala M (2009) WEB 2.0, social marketing strategies and distribution channels for city destinations. In: Gascó-Hernandez M, Torres-Coronas T (eds) Information communication technologies and city marketing: information opportunities for cities around the world. IGI Global, Hershey, pp 221–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sigala M (2012) Exploiting web 2.0 for new service development: findings and implications from the Greek tourism industry. Int J Tour Res 14:551–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sigala M, Marinidis D (2012) E-democracy and web 2.0: a framework enabling DMOS to engage stakeholders in collaborative destination management. Tour Anal 17(2):105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tödtling F, Kaufmann A (2001) The role of the region for innovation activities of SMEs. Eur Urban Reg Stud 8(3):203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tussyadiah IP (2014) Toward a theoretical foundation for experience design in tourism. J Travel Res 53(5):543–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tussyadiah I, Fesenmaier D (2009) Mediating tourist experiences. Ann Tour Res 36(1):24–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Úbeda-García M, Cortés EC, Marco-Lajara B, Zaragoza-Sáez P (2014) Strategy, training and performance fit. Int J Hosp Manag 42:100–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. UNCTAD (2013) Trade in creative products reached new peak in 2011, UNCTAD figures show. UNCTAD Press releaseGoogle Scholar
  78. UNESCO (2003) Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  79. UNESCO (2009) Understanding creative industries: cultural statistics for public policy. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  80. UNESCO (2016) The HUL guidebook: managing heritage in dynamic and constantly changing urban environments. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  81. UNWTO (2003) Study on tourism and intangible cultural heritage. UNWTO, MadridGoogle Scholar
  82. UNWTO (2012) Global report on city tourism. UNWTO, MadridGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang Y, Weaver DB, Kwek A (2016a) Beyond the mass tourism stereotype: power and empowerment in Chinese tour packages. J Travel Res 55(6):724–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang D, Xiang Z, Fesenmaier DR (2016b) Smartphone use in everyday life and travel. J Travel Res 55(1):52–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wei Y, Huang C, Lam PTI, Yuan Z (2015) Sustainable urban development: a review on urban carrying capacity assessment. Habitat Int 46:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weidenfeld A (2013) Tourism and cross border regional innovation systems. Ann Tour Res 42:191–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wiliams A, Shaw G (2011) Internationalization and innovation in tourism. Ann Tour Res 38(1):27–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yang Z, Cai J (2015) Do regional factors matter? Determinants of hotel industry performance in China. Tour Manag 52:242–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang Y, Xu J, Zhuang P (2011) The spatial relationship of tourist distribution in Chinese cities. Tour Geogr 13(1):75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Romão
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Studies in Management and EconomicsUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Regional Economics and Business NetworkHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations