Nutritional Quality Attributes of Edible Gasteroid Wild Mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus

  • Mundamoole Pavithra
  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
  • Ammatanda A. Greeshma


The gasteroid mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus is one of the traditionally consumed wild mushrooms in Southwest India. Owing to insufficient information on nutritional attributes of this mushroom, the present study addresses proximal qualities, minerals, amino acids, protein bioavailability and fatty acid composition in uncooked and pressure-cooked samples. The proximal features include moderate quantity of protein, low total lipid, high crude fibre and high carbohydrate contents. In uncooked and cooked mushroom, potassium, iron and zinc were higher than NRC-NAS recommended pattern, while the Na/K ratio was favourable (<1). Six essential amino acids (EAAs) (His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Thr and Val) in uncooked and cooked samples surpassed the FAO-WHO stipulated pattern, while the ratio of total EAAs/total amino acids favourably increased on cooking. The EAA score for many amino acids (Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe + Tyr and Val) was higher in cooked than in uncooked samples. The in vitro protein digestibility was significantly higher in uncooked than cooked samples. The protein efficiency ratios were favourable (>2) with highest in cooked samples (2.3–2.9). Among the fatty acids, palmitic and oleic acids were high. Overall, the wild tender A. hygrometricus is nutritionally valuable either uncooked or cooked state with sufficient quantity of protein, high carbohydrates, high fibre, low fat with adequate quantity of some essential minerals and several EAAs. In addition to good nutritional potential, it is also known for several bioactive components and antioxidant properties that serve as indigenous natural nutraceutical source.


Amino acids Ectomycorrhizae Fatty acids Minerals Protein bioavailability Proximal qualities 



Authors are grateful to Mangalore University for the permission to carry out this research. KRS is grateful to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, for the award of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship.


  1. Akeson WR, Stahmann MA (1964) A pepsin pancreatin digest index of protein quality. J Nutr 83:257–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alsmeyer RH, Cunningham AE, Happich ML (1974) Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technol 28:34–38Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME (1995) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 333:276–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Arun G, Eyini M, Gunasekaran P (2014) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune and its biomedical applications. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 19:1083–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balogun AM, Fetuga BL (1986) Chemical composition of some underexploited leguminous crop seeds in Nigeria. J Agric Food Chem 34:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barros L, Baptista P, Correia DM, Casal S, Oliveira B, Ferreira ICFR (2007a) Fatty acid and sugar compositions, and nutritional value of five wild edible mushrooms from Northeast Portugal. Food Chem 105:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barros L, Calhelha RC, Vaz JA, Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P, Estevinho LM (2007b) Antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms. Eur Food Res Technol 225:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barros L, Ferreira MJ, Queiros B, Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P (2007c) Total phenols, ascorbic acid, (β carotene and lycopene) in Portuguese wild edible mushrooms and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 103:413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barros L, Ferreira MJ, Queiros B, Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P (2008) Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals. Food Chem Toxicol 46:2742–2747CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bau HM, Vallaume CF, Evard F, Quemener B, Nicolas JP ad Mejean L. (1994) Effect of solid state fermentation using Rhizophus oligosporus sp. T-3 on elimination of antinutritional substances and modification of biochemical constituents of defatted rape seed meal. J Sci Food Agric 65:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boa E (2004) Wild edible fungi a global overview of their use and importance to people. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Bora P, Kawatra A (2014) Study on nutritional evaluation and composition of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus florida). Food Sci Res J 5:56–58Google Scholar
  14. Brand WA, Tegtmeyer AR, Hilkert A (1994) Compound-specific isotope analysis, extending towards 15N/14N and 13C/12C. Org Geochem 21:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Department of Health (1994) Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease, Reports on Health and Social Subjects, vol 46. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekanayake S, Jansz ER, Nair BM (1999) Proximate composition, mineral and amino acid content of mature Canavalia gladiata seeds. Food Chem 66:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 18:872–879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO-WHO (1991) Protein quality evaluation, Reports of a Joint FAO-WHO Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition Paper # 51, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedman M (1996) Nutritional value of proteins from different food sources – a review. J Agric Food Chem 44:6–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fürst P, Kuhn KS (2000) Fish oil emulsions: what benefits can they bring? Clin Nutr 19:7–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2016a) Contribution to the knowledge on macrofungi in mangroves of the Southwest India. Pl Biosys 150:977–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2016b) Spatiotemporal diversity of macrofungi in the coastal sand dunes of Southwestern India. Mycosphere 7:458–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR, Karun NC (2014) Macrofungi on the coastal sand dunes of South-western India. Mycosphere 5:144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M, Ghate SD (2016) Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity of scrub jungles of Southwest India. Mycology 7:15–28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Gruen EH, Wong MW (1982) Distribution of cellular amino acids, protein and total inorganic nitrogen during fruit body development in Flammulina veluptipes. Can J Bot 60:1330–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hofmann D, Jung K, Bender J, Gehre M, Schüürmann G (1997) Using natural isotope variations of nitrogen in plants an early indicator of air pollution stress. J Mass Spectrom 32:855–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hofmann D, Gehre M, Jung K (2003) Sample preparation techniques for the determination of natural 15N/14N variations in amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Isot Environ Health Stud 39:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Humphries EC (1956) Mineral composition and ash analysis. In: Peach K, Tracey MV (eds) Modern methods of plant analysis, vol 1. Springer, Berlin, pp 468–502Google Scholar
  29. Hyde KD, Bahkali AH, Moslem MA (2010) Fungi – an unusual source for cosmetics. Fungal Divers 43:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2014) A preliminary study on macrofungal diversity in an arboratum and three plantations of the southwest coast of India. Curr Res Environ Appl Mycol 4:173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2016) Spatial and temporal diversity of macrofungi in the western Ghat forests of India. Appl Ecol Environ Res 14:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Niveditha VR, Ghate SD (2016) Bioactive potential of two wild edible mushrooms of the western Ghats of India. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR (eds) Fruits, vegetables, and herbs: bioactive foods in health promotion. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 344–362Google Scholar
  33. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Ambarish CN (2017) Nutritional potential of Auricularia auricula-judae and Termitomyces umkowaan – the wild edible mushrooms of southwestern India. In: Gupta VK, Treichel H, Shapaval V, De Oliveira LA, Tuohy MG (eds) Microbial functional foods and nutraceuticals. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 281–301Google Scholar
  34. Kavishree S, Hemavathy J, Lokesh BR, Shashirekha MN, Rajarathnam S (2008) Fat and fatty acids of Indian edible mushrooms. Food Chem 106:597–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kruger CL, Mann SW (2003) Safety evaluation of functional ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol 41:793–805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lindequist U, Niedermeyer THJ, Julich WD (2005) The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. eCAM 2:285–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Manna S, Roy D, Roy A (2014) Trial relation to spatio-temporal variation of wild mushrooms in eastern lateritic part of India. Ethnobot Res Appl 12:15–24Google Scholar
  38. Manzi P, Pizzoferrato L (2000) Beta-glucans in edible mushrooms. Food Chem 68:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mattila P, Könkö K, Eurola M, Pihlava JM, Astola J, Vahteristo L, Hietaniemi V, Kumpulainen J, Valtonen M, Piironen V (2001) Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem 49:2343–2348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nareshkumar S (2007) Capillary gas chromatography method for fatty acid analysis of coconut oil. J Plant Crop 35:23–27Google Scholar
  41. Natarajan K, Senthilarasu G, Kumaresan V, Riviere T (2005) Diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi of a dipterocarp forest in western Ghats. Curr Sci 88:1893–1895Google Scholar
  42. NRC-NAS (1989) Recommended dietary allowances. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Padua-Resurreccion AB, Banzon JA (1979) Fatty acid composition of the oil from progressively maturing bunches of coconut. Philip J Coconut Stud 4:1–15Google Scholar
  44. Pavithra M, Greeshma AA, Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2015) Observations on the Astraeus spp. of Southwestern India. Mycosphere 6:421–432Google Scholar
  45. Pavithra M, Sridhar KR, Greeshma AA, Tomita-Yokotani K (2016) Bioactive potential of the wild mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus in the southwest India. Mycology 7:191–202Google Scholar
  46. Ramamurthy N, Kannan S (2009) SEM-EDS analysis of soil and plant (Calotropis gigantea Linn.) collected from an industrial village, Cuddalore Dt, Tamil Nadu, India. Rom J Biophys 19:219–226Google Scholar
  47. Sadasivam S, Manickam A (2008) Biochemical methods. New Age International Pvt Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanmee R, Dell B, Lumyong P, Izumori K, Lumyong S (2003) Nutritive value of popular wild edible mushrooms from northern Thailand. Food Chem 82:527–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shills MEG, Young VR (1988) Modern nutrition in health and disease. In: Neiman DC, Buthepodorth DE, Nieman CN (eds) Nutrition. WmC Brown, Dubugue, pp 276–282Google Scholar
  50. Singh N (2011) Wild edible plants: a potential source of nutraceuticals. Int Phar Sci Res 2:216–225Google Scholar
  51. Slavin J, Jacobs DR, Marquart L (1997) Whole-grain consumption and chronic disease: protective mechanisms. Nutr Cancer 27:14–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A, Aruoma OI, Bahorun T (2005) Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutat Res 579:200–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. StatSoft (2008) Statistica version # 8. StatSoft, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  54. Sudheep NM, Sridhar KR (2014) Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the western Ghats of India. Mycology 5:64–72CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Sylvester EC, Ezejiofor AJ, Nnedinma EA (2014) Survey and proximate analysis of edible mushrooms in Enugu State, Nigeria. Ann Exp Biol 2:52–57Google Scholar
  56. Thiribhuvanamala G, Prakasam V, Chandrasekar G, Sakthivel K, Veeralakshmi S, Velazhahan R Kalaiselvi G (2011) Biodiversity, conservation and utilization of mushroom flora from the Western Ghats region of India. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on mushroom biology and mushroom products. pp 155–164Google Scholar
  57. USDA (1999) Nutrient data base for standard reference release # 13, food group 20: cereal grains and pasta. Agriculture Handbook # 8–20, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, USAGoogle Scholar
  58. Venn BJ, Mann JI (2004) Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1443–1461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wu T, Zivanovic S, Draughon FA, Sams CE (2004) Chitin and chitosan-value-added products from mushroom waste. J Agric Food Chem 29:7905–7910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yusuf AA, Mofio BM, Ahmed AB (2007) Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica Linn 1753 seeds. Sci World J 2:1–4Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mundamoole Pavithra
    • 1
  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
    • 1
  • Ammatanda A. Greeshma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesMangalore UniversityMangalagangotri, MangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations