Rearing of Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Feasibility of Its Biological Control

  • Chandish R. Ballal
  • K. P. Kumar
  • P. Ambanna
  • A. K. Chakravarthy
  • Richa Varshney
  • H. Khader Khan


Conogethes spp. are economically important pests in the Orient, Australia, and North America. For conducting comprehensive and detailed studies on the fruit and shoot borer, Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée, efficient mass-rearing method is essential, and the correct species identification is also an important prerequisite. Provision of the perfect mating chamber, oviposition substrate, suitable larval rearing containers, and larval diet with essential nutrients are necessary for mass-rearing of C. punctiferalis. Host plant specific and geographic populations of C. punctiferalis have been recorded which may require to be reared on specific diets, and this needs to be evaluated. More than 25 natural enemies have been recorded which include species of Bracon, Apanteles, Chelonus, Chrysoperla, entomopathogenic nematodes, and entomopathogenic fungus. Attempts should be made to mass-produce the natural enemies for field utility. Bird predators too play an important role in checking C. punctiferalis populations in wild and cultivated ecosystems. Conservation of various promising natural enemies should be encouraged to minimize use of chemical insecticides.


Shoot and fruit borer Conogethes punctiferalis Mass rearing Meridic diets Natural enemies 



Authors sincerely thank the authorities of the University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru, ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru, ICAR-NBAIR, Bengaluru, and ICAR, New Delhi, India, for encouragement and facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandish R. Ballal
    • 1
  • K. P. Kumar
    • 2
  • P. Ambanna
    • 3
  • A. K. Chakravarthy
    • 4
  • Richa Varshney
    • 1
  • H. Khader Khan
    • 3
  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR)BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra (GKVK)BengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural EntomologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra (GKVK)BengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Division of Entomology and NematologyICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

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