Legumes and Sustainable Use of Soils

  • Ram Swaroop Meena
  • Rattan Lal


Sustainable use of soils is among the global challenges of the twenty-first century. In addition, growing food for 7.55 billion people (10.6% are prone to hunger and 26.7% to malnutrition and hidden hunger) in 2017 is a further challenge and threat to environment and sustainable production. Thus, food and nutritional demands must be met without degrading the natural environment. While the Haber-Bosch industrial process is producing about 100 Tg of reactive nitrogen (N) per annum globally, it creates enormous environmental problems. On a global basis, the supplied natural biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is 110 Tg N per year on land and 140 Tg N per year in the ocean. Reducing the amount of N production is possible with the addition of legumes in the cropping systems. Soil sustainability implies the ecological balance, enhancement of soil functions, and biodiversity. Therefore, recommended technologies of crops and cropping systems which promote soil sustainability must be promoted. Legumes are known for their positive impacts, such as BNF, weed suppression, erosion control as cover crop, soil health improvement, and most importantly toward the eradication of malnutrition in third-world countries. Therefore, these crops can contribute to achieving the objectives of sustainable food and environmental security. Hence, inclusion of legumes in cropping system is inevitable in advancing soil sustainability and food and nutritional security (1 kg of grain legumes contain 180–430 g of protein) without compromising the long-term soil fertility potential. Rational soil management practices must involve legume-based rotations and intercropping considerations for restoring soil health, and soil sustainability should be given due emphasis.


Food and nutritional security Legumes Soil health Management 



International Year of Pulses




United Nations


International Year of Soils


Soil organic carbon




Nitrous oxide








Soil organic matter


Land equivalent ratio


Best management practices


Biological nitrogen fixation


Soil microbial biomass


  1. Abera T, Feyissa D, Yusuf H (2005) Effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on grain yield of maize-climbing bean intercropping and soil fertility in western Oromiya, Ethiopia. Tropentag 2005 Stuttgart-Hohenheim, October 11–13, 2005. Conference on international Agricultural Research for DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  2. Addo-Quaye AA, Darkwa AA, Ocloo GK (2011) Yield and productivity of component crops in a maize-soybean intercropping system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement. J Agric Biol Sci 6(9):50–57Google Scholar
  3. Adeboye MKA, Iwuafor ENO, Agbenin JO (2005) Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield and chemical properties of an Alfisol in the northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. Niger J Soil Res 6:22–31Google Scholar
  4. Adeniyan ON, Akande SR, Balogun MO, Saka JO (2007) Evaluation of crop yield of African yam bean, maize and kenaf under intercropping systems. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2(1):99–102Google Scholar
  5. Akinnifesi FK, Makumba W, Sileshi G, Ajayi OC, Mweta D (2007) Synergistic effect of inorganic N and P fertilizers and organic inputs from Gliricidia sepium on productivity of intercropped maize in Southern Malawi. Plant Soil 294:203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alpmann D, Braun J, Schäfer BC (2013) AnalyseeinerBefragunguntererfolgreichenKörnerleguminosenanbauernimkonventionellenLandbau. ErsteErgebnisseausdemForschungsprojektLeguAN. In: DLG Wintertagung, ImFokus: HeimischeKörnerleguminosenvomAnbaubiszurNutzung. Berlin, p 20Google Scholar
  7. Ashoka P, Meena RS, Kumar S, Yadav GS, Layek J (2017) Green nanotechnology is a key for eco-friendly agriculture. J Clean Prod 142:4440–4441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bado BV, Sedogo MP, Lompo F (2004) Long term effects of mineral fertilizers, phosphate rock, dolomite and manure on the characteristics of an ultisol and maize yield in Burkina Faso. In: Bationo A (ed) Managing nutrient cycles to sustain soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Academy Science Publishers, Nairobi, p 608Google Scholar
  9. Barbosae S, Lima PI, Silva PS, de Oliveira OF, de Sousa RP (2008) Planting times of cowpea intercropped with corn in the weed control. Revista Caatinga (Mossoró, Brasil) 21(1):113–119Google Scholar
  10. Briggs, DG (2005) Assessing and managing stands to meet quality objectives. In: Harrington CA. Schoenholz SH (ed) Productivity of western forests: a forest products focus. USDA forest service Pacific northwest research station, Portland, OR, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-642, pp 141–152Google Scholar
  11. Bardos P (2003) A review of the contaminated land rehabilitation network for environmental technologies in Europe (CLARINET). Part 2: working group findings. Land Contamination Reclamation 11(1):15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bardos P, Bone B, Boyle R, Ellis D, Evans F, Harries ND, Smith JWN (2011) Applying sustainable development principles to contaminated land management using the SuRF-UK framework. Remediation 21(2):1–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berihun T, Molla E (2017) Study on the diversity and use of wild edible plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia. Aust J Bot 2017:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beutler AN, Centurion JF, Souza ZM, Andrioli I, Roque CG (2002) Water retention in two oxisols under different uses. Revista Brasileira de Ciênciado Solo 26:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Binder CR, Wiek A (2007) The role of transdisciplinary processes in sustainability assessment of agricultural systems. In: Hani J, Pinte’r L, Herren HR (eds) From common principles to common practice. Proceedings and outputs of the first symposium of the international forum on assessing sustainability in agriculture (INFASA). International Institute of Sustainable Development and Swiss College of Agriculture, Bern, pp 33–48Google Scholar
  16. Binder CR, Feola G, Steinberger JK (2010) Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator based sustainability assessments in agriculture. Environ Impact Assess Rev 30(2):71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blaser BC, Gibson LR, Singer JW, Jannink JL (2006) Optimizing seeding rates for winter cereal grains and frost-seeded red clover intercrops. Agron J 98:1041–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brintha I, Seran TH (2009) Effect of paired row planting of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) intercropped with vegetable amaranths (Amaranths tricolor L.) on yield components of radish in sandy regosol. J Agric Sci 4:19–28Google Scholar
  19. Buerkert A, Bationo A, Dossa K (2000) Mechanisms of residue mulch induced cereal growth increases in West Africa. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:346–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bues A, Preissel S, Reckling M, Zander P, Kuhlman T, Topp K, Watson CA, Lindström K, Stoddard FL, Murphy-Bokern D (2013) The environmental role of protein crops in the new Common Agricultural Policy. European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, Agricultural and Rural Development IP/B/AGRI/IC/2012–067, 112 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Buragohain S, Sharma B, Nath JD, Gogaoi N, Meena RS, Lal R (2017) Impact of ten years of bio-fertilizer use on soil quality and rice yield on an inceptisol in Assam. India Soil Res.
  22. Carlsson G, Huss-Danell K (2003) Nitrogen fixation in perennial forage legumes in the field. Plant Soil 253:353–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlsson G, Huss-Danell K (2014) Does nitrogen transfer between plants confound 15N-based quantifications of N2 fixation? Plant Soil 374:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carranca C (2013) Legumes: properties and symbiosis. In: Camisão AH, Pedroso CC (eds) Symbiosis: evolution, biology and ecological effects. Animal science, issues and professions. Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-62257-211-3Google Scholar
  25. Carter MR (2002) Soil quality for sustainable land management: organic matter and aggregation interactions that maintain soil function. Agron J 94:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chalk PM, Peoples MB, Mcneill AM et al (2014) Methodologies for estimating nitrogen transfer between legumes and companion species in agro-ecosystems: a review of 15N-enriched techniques. Soil Biol Biochem 73:10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chalka MK, Nepalia V (2006) Nutrient uptake appraisal of maize intercropped with legumes and associated weeds under the influence of weed control. Indian J Agric Res 40:86–91Google Scholar
  28. Chapagain T, Riseman A (2014) Barley–pea intercropping: effects on land productivity, carbon and nitrogen transformations. Field Crop Res 166:18–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapagain T, Riseman A (2015) Nitrogen and carbon transformations, water use efficiency and ecosystem productivity in monocultures and wheat-bean intercropping systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 101:107–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen G, Zhu H, Zhang Y (2003) Soil activities and carbon and nitrogen fixation. Res Microbiol 154:393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chintala R, Mollinedo J, Schumacher TE, Malo DD, Julson JL (2013) Effect of biochars on chemical properties of acidic soil. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:393–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chu GX, Shen QR, Cao JL (2004) Nitrogen fixation and N transfer from peanut to rice cultivated in aerobic soil in intercropping system and its effect on soil N-fertility. Plant and Soil 263:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Corre-Hellou G, Fustec J, Crozat Y (2006) Interspecific competition for soil N and its interaction with N2 fixation, leaf expansion and crop growth in pea-barley intercrops. Plant Soil 282:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Corre-Hellou G, Brisson N, Launay M, Fustec J, Crozat Y (2007) Effect of root depth penetration on soil N sharing and dry matter in pea-barley intercrops given different soil N supplies. Field Crop Res 103:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crépon K (2006) Protein supply in Europe and the challenge to increase grain legumes production: a contribution to sustainable agriculture. In: Grain legumes and the environment: how to assess benefits and impacts. Proceedings of the AEP workshop, (ed.) AEP, 18–19 November 2004, Zürich, Switzerland, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  36. Crozat Y, Fustec J (2006) Assessing the role of grain legumes in crop rotation: some agronomic concepts that can help. In: Grain legumes and the environment: how to assess benefits and impacts. Proceedings of the AEP workshop, (ed.) AEP, 18–19 November 2004, Zürich, Switzerland, pp 55–60Google Scholar
  37. Cui WT, Gao CY, Fang P, Lin GQ, Shen WB (2013) Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water. J Hazard Mater 260:715–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dadhich RK, Meena RS, Reager ML, Kansotia BC (2015) Response of bio-regulators to yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson) under different irrigation environments. J App and Nat Sci 7(1):52–57Google Scholar
  39. Dahmardeh M, Ghanbari A, Syahsar BA, Ramrodi M (2010) The role of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on yield and soil chemical properties. Afr J Agric Res 5(8):631–636Google Scholar
  40. Deakin WJ, Broughton WJ (2009) Symbiotic use of pathogenic strategies: Rhizobial protein secretion systems. Appl Soil Ecol 7:312–320Google Scholar
  41. Derpsch R (2015) The extent of conservation agriculture adoption worldwide: implications and impact. In: Proceedings of the Third World Congress on Conservation Agriculture: Linking Production, Livelihoods and Conservation, Nairobi, Kenya, 3–7 October 2015Google Scholar
  42. Deutsch B, Kahle P, Voss M (2006) Assessing the source of nitrate pollution in water using stable N and O isotopes. Agron Sustain Dev 26:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Devare M, Londono RLM, Thies JE (2007) Neither transgenic Bt maize (MON863) nor tefluthrin insecticide adversely affect soil microbial activity or biomass: a 3-year field analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2038–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dexter AR (2004) Soil physical quality part I. Theory, effects of soil texture, density, and organic matter, and effects on root growth. Geoderma 120:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, De N, Verma SK, Singh A (2015) Growth, yield and nutrient content of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in response to INM in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):479–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, Kumar S (2016) Effect of INM on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of green gram. Legum Res 39(4):590–594Google Scholar
  47. Doran JW (2000) Soil health and global sustainability: translating science into practice. Agric Ecosyst Environ 88:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Duru M, Therond O, Martin G, Martin-Clouaire R, Magne MA, Justes E, Journet EP, Aubertot JN, Savary S, Bergez JE, Sarthou JP (2015) How to implement biodiversity-based agriculture to enhance ecosystem services: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 35:1259–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dusa EM (2009) Researches regarding the productivity of oat-lentil intercropping in the organic agriculture system. Res J Agric Sci 41(1):22–26Google Scholar
  50. FAO (2016) Hunger. In: Poverty and climate change: the challenges today and tomorrowGoogle Scholar
  51. Fester T, Giebler J, Wick LY, Schlosser D, Kästner M (2014) Plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem functions relevant for the biodegradation of organic contaminants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 27:168–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Foley JA, Ramankutty N, Brauman KA, Cassidy ES, Gerber JS, Johnston M (2011) Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Franzluebbers AJ (2002) Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth. Soil Tillage Res 66:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fustec J, Lesuffleur F, Mahieu S, Cliquet JB (2010) Nitrogen rhizodeposition of legumes: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gans J, Wolinsky M, Dunbar J (2005) Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science 309:1387–1390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Garg N, Geetanjali (2007) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules: process and signaling. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 27:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ghaley BB, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Hogh-Jensen H, Jensen ES (2005) Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Nutr Cycling Agroecosyst 73:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ghanbari A, Dahmardeh M, Siahsar BA, Ramroudi M (2010) Effect of maize (L.) – cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) intercropping on light distribution, soil temperature and soil moisture in arid environment. J. Food Agric Environ 8:102–108Google Scholar
  59. Ghosh PK, Manna MC, Dayal D, Wanjari RH (2006) Carbon sequestration potential and sustainable yield index for groundnut- and fallow-based cropping systems. J Agric Sci 144:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Giller KE (2001) Nitrogen fixation in tropical cropping systems, 2nd edn. CABI, Wallingford, 423 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Giller KE, Witter E, Corbeels M, Tittonell P (2009) Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: the heretics’ view. Field Crop Res 114:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Glick BR (2010) Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 28:367–374PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Graham PH, Vance-Carroll P (2015) Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiol 131:872–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grandy AS, Porter GA, Erich MS (2002) Organic amendment and rotation crop effects on the recovery of soil organic matter and aggregation in potato cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1311–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hani F (2007) Globla agriculture in need of sustainability assessment. In: Hani J, Pinte’r L, Herren HR (eds) From common principles to common practice, proceedings and outputs of the first symposium of the international forum on assessing sustainability in agriculture (INFASA). International Institute of Sustainable Development and Swiss College of Agriculture, Bern, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  66. Hao XL, Lin YB, Johnstone L, Baltrus DA, Miller SJ, Wei GW et al (2012) Draft genome sequence of plant growth-promoting rhizobium Mesorhizobium amorphae, isolated from zinc-lead mine tailings. J Bacteriol 194:736–737PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haslmayr HP, Geitner C, Sutor G, Knoll A, Baumgarten A (2016) Soil function evaluation in Austria—development, concepts and examples. Geoderma 264:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hati KM, Swarup A, Singh D, Misra AK, Ghosh PK (2006) Long-term continuous cropping, fertilization and manuring effects on physical properties and organic carbon content of a sandy loam soil. Aust J Soil Res 44:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Jensen ES (2005) Facilitative root interactions in intercrops. Plant Soil 274:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Jornsgaard B, Kinane J, Jensen ES (2007) Grain legume–cereal intercropping: the practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems. Renew Agric Food Syst 23:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Gooding M, Ambus P, Corre-Hellou G, Crozat Y, Dahlmann C, Dibet A, von Fragstein P, Pristeri A, Monti M, Jensen ES (2009) Pea–barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N2–fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems. Field Crop Res 113:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hayati D, Ranjbar Z, Karami E (2010) Measuring agricultural sustainability. In: E. Lichtfouse (ed.), Biodiversity, biofuels, agroforestry and conservation agriculture, 73 Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 5, pp 73–100Google Scholar
  73. He X, Xu M, Qiu GY, Zhou J (2009) Use of 15N stable isotope to quantify nitrogen transfer between mycorrhizal plants. J Plant Ecol 2:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Herawati N, Suzuki S, Hayashi K, Rivai IF, Koyama H (2000) Cadmium, copper, and zinc levels in rice and soil of Japan, Indonesia, and China by soil type. Bull Environ ContamToxicol 64:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Høgh-Jensen H (2006) The nitrogen transfer between plants: an important but difficult flux to quantify. Plant Soil 282:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Horrigan L, Lawrence RS, Walker P (2002) How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environ Health Perspect 110:445–456PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. IAASTD (2008) Agriculture at a crossroads: global report/International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD). Press, IslandGoogle Scholar
  78. ILDIS (2017) International legume database and information service, World Database of Legumes. dated 02/01/2017
  79. Inal A, Gunes A, Zhang F, Cacmak I (2007) Peanut/maize inter-cropping induced changes in rhizosphere and nutrient concentrations in shoots. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:350–356PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. IUSS (2016) Bulletin of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS).
  81. Jarenyama P, Hesterman OB, Waddington SR, Harwood RR (2000) Relay-intercropping of sunn hemp and cowpea into a smallholder maize system in Zimbabwe. Agron J 92:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jensen ES (2006) Grain legume functions in crop rotations. In: Grain legumes and the environment: how to assess benefits and impacts. Proceedings of the AEP workshop, (Ed.) AEP, 18–19 November 2004, Zürich, Switzerland, pp 49–54Google Scholar
  83. Jin QJ, Zhu KK, Cui WT, Xie YJ, Han B, Shen WB (2013) Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system. Plant Cell Environ 36:956–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Joshi PK, ParthasarathyRao P (2016) Global pulses scenario: status and outlook. Ann N Y Acad Sci:1–12Google Scholar
  85. Juma KA, Van Averbeke (2005) Response of Muxe to N and P availability in pots. In: Tenywa JS, Adipala E, Nampala P, Tussiime G, Okori P, Kyanmuhangire W (eds). African Crop Science. Proceedings, vol. 7, Kampala, Uganda, 5–9 Dec 2005 pp 1179–1182Google Scholar
  86. Kaiya S, Utsunomiya S, Suzuki S, Yoshida N, Futamata H, Yamada T et al (2012) Isolation and functional gene analyses of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from a polychlorinated-dioxin-dechlorinating process. Microbes Environ 27:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Keeler BL, Hobbie SE, Kellogg LE (2009) Effects of long-term nitrogen addition on microbial enzyme activity in eight forested and grassland sites: implications for litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Ecosystems 12:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kelly A, Redmond L, King F (2009a) GHG MACC brief: a provisional collation of some GHG MACC curves in circulation. Dublin, AP EnvEcon LtdGoogle Scholar
  89. Kelly B, Allan C, Wilson BP (2009b) Soil indicators and their use by farmers in the Billabong Catchment, southern New South Wales. Aust J Soil Res 47:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Khan DF, Herridge DF, Peoples MB, Shah SH, Khan T, Madani MS, Ibrar M (2007) Use of isotopic and non-isotopic techniques to quantify below-ground nitrogen in faba bean and chickpea. Soil Environ 26:42–47Google Scholar
  91. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA, Oves M (2009) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Environ Chem Lett 7:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Klaassen CD, Watkins JB (2003) Casarett and Doull’s essentials of toxicology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Knight TR, Dick RP (2004) Differentiating microbial and stabilized β-glucosidase activity relative to soil quality. Soil Biol Biochem 36:2089–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kumar K, Goh KM (2000) Crop residues and management practices: effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield and nitrogen recovery. Adv Agron 68:198–279Google Scholar
  95. Kumar S, Sheoran S, Kumar SK, Kumar P, Meena RS (2016) Drought: a challenge for Indian farmers in context to climate change and variability. Progress Res Int J 11:6243–6246Google Scholar
  96. Kureh I, Kamara AY (2005) Effects of sole cropping, intercropping and rotation with legume trap-crops on Striga control and maize grain yield in farmers’ fields in the Northern Guinea Savanna. In: Badu-Apraku B, Fakorede MAB, Lum, AF, Menkir A, Ouedraogo, M (eds), Demand-driven technologies for sustainable maize production in West and Central Africa. Fifth Biennial West and Central Africa Regional Maize Workshop, 3–6 May 2005, IITABénin. pp 169–179Google Scholar
  97. Lado M, Ben-Hui M (2004) Organic matter and aggregate size interactions in infiltration, seal formation and soil loss. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:935–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lal R (2004a) Carbon sequestration in soils of Central Asia. Land Degr Dev 15:563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lal R (2004b) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lal R (2006) Enhancing crop yields in developing countries through restoration of soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands. Land Degrad Dev 17:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lal R (2010) Soil quality and ethics: the human dimension. In: Lal R, Stewart BA (eds) Food security and soil quality, Advances in soil science. Taylor & Francis (CRC Press), Boca Raton, pp 301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lal R (2011) Sequestering carbon in soils of agro-ecosystems. Food Policy 36:S33–S39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lal R (2012) Climate change and soil degradation mitigation by sustainable management of soils and other natural resources. Agric Res 1:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lal R (2013) Intensive agriculture and the soil carbon pool. J Crop Improve 27:735–751. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lal R (2014) Societal value of soil carbon. J Soil Water Conserv 69:186A–192ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lal R (2015) Restoring soil quality to mitigate soil degradation. Sustainability 7:5875–5895. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lal R (2016) Soil health and carbon management. Food and Energy Secur 5(4):212–222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Leterme P, Carmenza Munoz L (2002) Factors influencing pulse consumption in Latin America. Br J Nutr 88(Suppl 3):251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Li Y, Liang F, Zhu YF, Wang FP (2013) Phytoremediation of a PCB contaminated soil by alfalfa and tall fescue single and mixed plants cultivation. J Soils Sediments 13:925–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Liang B, Lehmann J, Sohi SP, Thies JE, O’Neill B, Trujillo L, Gaunt J, Solomon D, Grossman J, Neves EG, FJ L˜a (2010) Black carbon affects the cycling of non-black carbon in soil. Org Geochem 41:206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA, Damalas CA, Vlachostergios DN (2011) Annual intercrops: an alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Austr J Crop Sci 5:396–410Google Scholar
  112. Liu XM, Wu JJ, Xu JM (2006) Characterizing the risk assessment of heavy metals and sampling uncertainty analysis in paddy field by geostatistics and GIS. Environ Pollut 141:257–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lopez CG, Mundt CC (2000) Using mixing ability analysis from two way cultivar mixtures to predict the performance of cultivars in complex mixtures. Field Crop Res 68(2):121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Loreau M, Hector A (2001) Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mahieu S, Fustec J, Faure ML, Corre-Hellou G, Crozat Y (2007) Comparison of two 15N labelling methods for assessing nitrogen rhizodeposition of pea. Plant Soil 295:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Karan NK, Dhar RK, Tamili DK, Das D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D (1996) Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts in West Bengal, India – the biggest calamity in the world. Curr Sci 70:976–986Google Scholar
  117. Mann L, Tolbert V, Cushman J (2002) Potential environmental effects on inter row runoff and infiltration. Soil Sci Soc Am J 89:149–166Google Scholar
  118. Mazvimavi K, Twomlow S, Belder P, Hove L (2008) An assessment of the sustainable uptake of conservation farming in Zimbabwe. Global theme on agroecosystems report no. 19. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, pp 51Google Scholar
  119. McLauchlin KK, Hobbie SE (2004) Comparison of labile soil organic matter fractionation techniques. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:1616–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Medeot DB, Paulucci NS, Albornoz AI, Fumero MV, Bueno MA, Garcia MB, Woelke MR, Okon Y, Dardanelli MS (2010) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria improving the legume–rhizobia Symbiosis. In: Khan MS, Musarrat J, Zaidi A (eds) Microbes for legume improvement. Springer, Vienna, pp 473–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Meena RS, Meena SK, Singh NP, Malik VK (2014) Microbial dynamics as influenced by concentrate manure and inorganic fertilizer in alluvium soil of Varanasi, India. African J Microb Res 8(1):257–263Google Scholar
  122. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015a) Towards the plant stress mitigate the agricultural productivity: a book review. J Clean Prod 102:552–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena H, Kumar S, Meena YK, Singh A (2015b) Towards the current need to enhance legume productivity and soil sustainability worldwide: a book review. J Clean Prod 104:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015c) The needs of healthy soils for a healthy world. J Clean Prod 102:560–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Meena RS, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Meena V, Verma JP, Verma SK, Sihag SK (2016) Towards the prime response of manure to enhance nutrient use efficiency and soil sustainability a current need: a book review. J Clean Prod 112:1258–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Meena RS, Gogai N, Kumar S (2017a) Alarming issues on agricultural crop production and environmental stresses. J Clea Prod 142:3357–3359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Meena RS, Meena PD, Yadav GS, Yadav SS (2017b) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, principles and application of MicrophosTechnology. J Clean Prod 145:157–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Melero S, Madejon E, Ruiz JC, Herencia JF (2007) Chemical and biochemical properties of a clay soil under dryland agriculture system as affected by organic fertilization. Eur J Agron 26:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mousavi S, Yousefi-Moghadam S, Mostafazadeh-Fard B, Hemmat A, Yazdani MR (2009) Effect of puddling intensity on physical properties of a silty clay soil under laboratory and field conditions. Paddy Water Environ 7(1):45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Moyer-Henry KA, Burton JW, Israel DW, Rufty TW (2006) Nitrogen transfer between plants: a 15N natural abundance study with crop and weed species. Plant Soil 282:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mugwe J, Mugendi D, Okoba B, Tuwei P, O’Neill M (2004) Soil conservation and fertility improvement using leguminous Shrubs in central highlands of Kenya: NARFP Case study. In: Bationo A (ed) Managing nutrient cycles to sustain soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Academy Science Publishers, Nairobi, p 608Google Scholar
  132. Mundt (2002) Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:381–410. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Muoneke CO, Ogwuche MAO, Kalu BA (2007) Effect of maize planting density on the performance of maize/soybean intercropping system in a guinea savannah agroecosystem. Afr J Agric Res 2(12):667–677Google Scholar
  134. Nees B, Anderberg S, Olsson L (2010) Structuring problems in sustainability science: the multi-level DPSIR framework. Geoforum 41(3):479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nygren P, Leblanc HA (2015) Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system. Tree Physiol 00:1–14Google Scholar
  136. Obbard JP, Sauerbeck D, Jones KC (1994) Dehydrogenase activity of the microbial biomass in soils from a field experiment amended with heavy metal contaminated sewage sludges. Sci Total Environ 142:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ogunwole JO, Iwuafor ENO, Eche NM, Diels J (2010) Effect of organic and inorganic soil amendments on soil physical and chemical properties in a West Africa Savanna agroecosystem. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 12:247–255Google Scholar
  138. Padilla FM, Pugnaire FI (2006) The role of nurse plants in restoration of degraded environments. Front Ecol Environ 4:196–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Paynel F, Lesuffleur F, Bigot J et al (2008) A study of 15N transfer between legumes and grasses. Agron Sustain Dev 28:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Peyraud JL, Le Gall A, Lüscher A (2009) Potential food production from forage legume-based systems in Europe: an overview. Ir J Agric Food Res 48:115–135Google Scholar
  141. Pikul JL, Johnson JMF Jr, Schumacher TE, Vigil M, Riedell WE (2008) Change in surface soil carbon under rotated corn in eastern South Dakota. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1738–1744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prell J, Poole P (2006) Metabolic changes of rhizobia in legume nodules. Trends Biotechnol 14:161–168Google Scholar
  143. Raji JA (2007) Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology. Afr J Biotechnol 6(16):1885–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ram K, Meena RS (2014) Evaluation of pearl millet and mung bean intercropping systems in arid region of Rajasthan (India). Bangladesh J Bot 43(3):367–370Google Scholar
  145. Ramirez-Restrepo C, Barry T (2005) Alternative temperate forages containing secondary compounds for improving sustainable productivity in grazing ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol 120:179–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rasmunssen J, Eriksen J, Jensen ES, Esbensen KH, Høgh-Jensen H (2007) In situ carbon and nitrogen dynamics in rye-grass clover mixtures: transfers, deposition and leaching. Soil Biol Biochem 39:804–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ratnadass A, Blanchard E, Lecompte P (2013) Ecological interactions within the biodiversity of cultivated systems. In: Cultivating biodiversity to transform agriculture. Hainzelain ed., ed Quae, Cirad, pp 141–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Reddy A (2016) Sustainable indicators of food, nutritional and health outcomes in India. Yojna, December 2016Google Scholar
  149. Rochon JJ, Doyle CJ, Greef JM, Hopkins A, Molle G, Sitzia M, Scholefield D, Smith CJ (2004) Grazing legumes in Europe: a review of their status, management, benefits, research needs and future prospects. Grass Forage Sci 59:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rossing WAH, Zander P, Josien E, Groot JCJ, Meyer BC, Knierim A (2007) Integrative modelling approaches for analysis of impact of multifunctional agriculture: a review for France, Germany and the Netherlands. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120(1):41–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Samba T, Coulibay BS, Koné A, Bagayoko M, Kouyaté Z (2007) Increasing the productivity and sustainability of millet based cropping systems in the Sahelian zones of West Africa. In: Bationo A (eds), Advances in integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities, pp 567–574Google Scholar
  152. Sato Y, Monincová M, Chaloupková R, Prokop Z, Ohtsubo Y, Minamisawa K et al (2005) Two rhizobial strains, Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, encode haloalkane dehalogenases with novel structures and substrate specificities. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4372–4379PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schädler S, Morio M, Bartke S, Rohr-Zänker R, Finkel M (2011) Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model. J Environ Manag 92:827–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Schimel DS, Braswell BH, Holland EA (1994) Climatic, edaphic and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 8:279–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schipanski ME, Drinkwater LE (2012) Nitrogen fixation in annual and perennial legume–grass mixtures across a fertility gradient. Plant Soil 357:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schmidt J, Weidema BP (2015) Shift in the marginal supply of vegetable oil. Int J LCA 13(3):235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schoenholtz SH, VamMiegroet H, Burger JA (2000) A review of chemical and physical properties as indicators of forest soil quality: challenges and opportunities. For Ecol Manag 138:335–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schuster GI (2013) Cultivated, primarily as food source. In: Nutritional Aspects of Legumes, vol. I. Encyclopedia of Life Support System (EOLSS).
  159. Seran TH, Brintha I (2010) Review on maize based intercropping. J Agro 9(3):135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sharma AR, Behera UK (2009) Nitrogen contribution through Sesbania green manure and dual – purpose legumes in maize–wheat cropping systems: agronomic and economic considerations. Plant Soil 325:289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Siddique KHM, Johansen C, Kumar Rao JVDK, Ali M (2008) Legumes in sustainable cropping systems. In: Kharkwal MC (ed) Food legumes for nutritional security and sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of the fourth international food legumes research conference (IFLRC-IV), October 18–22, 2005, New Delhi, India, vol 1. Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, New Delhi, pp 787–819Google Scholar
  162. Sinha S, Gupta AK, Bhatt K, Pandey K, Rai UN, Singh KP (2006) Distribution of metals in the edible plants grown at Jajman, Kanpur (Indian) receiving treated tannery wastewater: relation with physico-chemical properties of the soil. Environ Monit Assess 115:1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Soussana JF, Machado O (2000) Modelling the temperate grasses and legumes in cut mixtures. In: Lemaire et al (eds) Grassland ecophysiology and grazing ecology. CAB International, London, pp 169–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Spehn E, Scherer Lorenzen M, Schmid B, Hector A, Caldeira M, Dimitrakopoulos P, Finn J, Jumpponen A, O'donnovan G, Pereira J (2002) The role of legumes as a component of biodiversity in a cross-European study of grassland biomass nitrogen. Oikos 98:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Srinivasarao C, Venkateswarlu B, Lal R (2012) Long-term effects of soil fertility management on carbon sequestration in a rice-lentil cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Soil Sci Soc Am J 76(1):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Stern N (2006) Stern review: economic of climate change. United Kingdom’s Treasury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  167. Sullivan P (2003) Intercropping principles and production practices. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas Publication.
  168. Swarup A, Manne MC, Sigh GB (2000) Impact of land use and management practices on organic carbon dynamics in soils of India. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and tropical ecosystems. Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, pp 261–281Google Scholar
  169. Teng Y, Wang X, Li L, Li Z, Luo Y (2015) Rhizobia and their bio-partners as novel drivers for functional remediation in contaminated soils. Front Plant Sci 6(32):1–11Google Scholar
  170. Turnbull J, Bowman WD (2002) Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon. Nature 419:915–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. UN (2015) United Nation Department of Economics and Social Welfare, Population Division, Revision of World Population Prospects. dated 10/17/2016
  172. UN (2016) United Nations proclaims 2016 as “International year of pulses”. Global pulse confederation. Retrieved 24 January 2016, (A/RES/68/231)Google Scholar
  173. USDA (2016) National nutrient database for standard reference release 28, released September 2015, slightly revised May 2016Google Scholar
  174. Van der Werf HMG, Petit J (2002) Evaluation of the environmental impact of agriculture at the farm level: a comparison and analysis of 12 indicator-based methods. Agric Ecosyst Environ 93(1–3):131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vance CP (2001) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition: plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiol 127:390–397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S, Kumar E (2017) Response of mung bean to NPK and lime under the conditions of Vindhyan Region of Uttar Pradesh. Leg Res 40(3):542–545Google Scholar
  177. Verma JP, Meena VS, Kumar A, Meena RS (2015a) Issues and challenges about sustainable agriculture production for management of natural resources to sustain soil fertility and health: A book review. J Clean Prod 107:793–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Meena VS, Meena RS (2015b) Current need of organic farming for enhancing sustainable agriculture. J Clean Prod 102:545–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wang C, Shen Z, Li X, Luo C, Chen Y, Yang H (2004) Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils and stream sediments near a copper mine in Tongling, People’s Republic of China. Bull Environ ContamToxicol 73:862–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Webb J, Bellamy P, Loveland PJ, Goodlass G (2003) Crop residue returns and equilibrium soil organic carbon in England and Wales. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:928–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wichern F, Mayer J, Joergensen RG, Müller T (2007) Release of C and N from roots of peas and oats and their availability to soil microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2829–2839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wilhelm WW, Johnson JMF, Hatfield JL, Voorhees WB, Linden DR (2004) Crop and soil productivity response to corn residue removal: a literature review. Agron J 96:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Williams A, Hedlund K (2014) Indicators and trade-offs of ecosystem services in agricultural soils along a landscape heterogeneity gradient. Appl Soil Ecol 77:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Williams PN, Lei M et al (2009) Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice-Hunan, China. Environ Sci Technol 43:637–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Datta M, Babu S, Das LJ, Saha P (2017a) Energy budgeting for designing sustainable and environmentally clean/safer cropping systems for rainfed rice fallow lands in India. J Clean Prod 158:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Babu S, Das A, Bhomik SN, Datta M, Layak J, Saha P (2017b) Conservation tillage and nutrient management effects on productivity and soil carbon sequestration under double cropping of Rice in north eastern region of India. Ecol Indi
  187. Yong T, Liu X, Yang F et al (2015) Characteristics of nitrogen uptake, use and transfer in a wheat-maize-soybean relay intercropping system. Plant Prod Sci 18:388–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Young IM, Crawford JW (2004) Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex. Science:304, 1634–1637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yusuf AA, Iwuafor ENO, Olufajo OO, Abaidoo RC, Sanginga N (2009) Effect of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrogen efficiency in maize in the northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Afr J Agric Res 4(10):913–921Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ram Swaroop Meena
    • 1
  • Rattan Lal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, SENR/FAESThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations