A Numerical Back Analysis of a Ground Improvement Project on Underconsolidated Clay Under Combined Vacuum and Surcharge Preloading in Macau

  • Yue ChenEmail author
  • Thomas Man Hoi Lok
  • Hei Yip Lee
Conference paper


This paper describes the ground improvement monitoring and back analysis results of a well-documented project in the Cotai area in Macau. The improvement project covers a total area of 220000 m2, with vacuum preloading in selected areas, and conventional surcharge in other areas of the site. Settlement achieved by soil improvement was between 0.8 m to 1.5 m, and undrained shear strength increased from 10 kPa to more than 25 kPa. A back analysis, using PLAXIS and calibrated with ground settlement records, provided the undrained shear strength values that are in general agreement with measurements.


Ground improvement Vacuum preloading Settlement Undrained shear strength 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Mr. Graeme Coles, Engineering Manager of Leighton Asia, for providing the valuable geotechnical data and comments during the course of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MacauMacau S.A.RChina
  2. 2.Civil Engineering Consultants Co. LimitedMacau S.A.RChina

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