Correlation Analysis of CPT Test Results and the Compaction Index for Calcareous Sand

  • Xiaocong LiangEmail author
  • Xiaobing Guo
  • Xin Wang
  • Sheng Chen
  • Deyong Wang
Conference paper


In previous studies, the standard penetration test (SPT) has been used to determine the compaction of sand and develop resulting correlations. However, correlations are rarely based on the cone penetration Test (CPT), especially those correlating with relative compaction values. Several drilling boreholes were selected to collect samples for laboratory testing as part of the Kuwait LNGI project. The test results showed that the relative density and fines content exhibit a linear correlation at a specified level of relative compaction and the samples with high fines contents yielded larger maximum density values based on compaction tests compared with those based on relative density tests. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the correlation between qc and the relative density was conducted based on three methods: Jamiolkowski’s method, Baldi’s method and Jamiolkowski’s method with a carbonate content correction. The analysis results revealed that Jamiolkowski’s method yielded higher qc values than Baldi’s method at a 90% compaction level, and the corrected Jamiolkowski method yielded low qc values. Furthermore, in accordance with the above analysis, it was more reasonable to establish acceptance criteria based on Baldi’s method for the compaction of sand with a carbonate content less than 45%. However, the corrected Jamiolkowski method should be applied when the carbonate content is greater than 45%.


Relative compaction Relative density Correlation analysis Calcareous sand Acceptance criteria 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaocong Liang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xiaobing Guo
    • 3
  • Xin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sheng Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deyong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CCCC Fourth Harbor Engineering Institute Co., Ltd.GuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Environment Protection & Safety of Transportation Foundation Engineer of CCCCGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.CCCC Guangzhou Dredging Co., Ltd.GuangzhouChina

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