Developing Entrepreneurship Under the Rise of China: Chinese Migrant Entrepreneurs in Tourism-Related Businesses in Chiang Mai
This chapter explores the recent Chinese migrant entrepreneurs in tourism-related businesses in Chiang Mai and proposes two main findings. First, the Chinese migrant entrepreneurs are part of an emergent entrepreneurial class of Chinese capitalism that apply both modern and western-style managerial practices and organizational structures, as well as unique strategies such as diversifying, developing social capital, and redefining guanxi. Second, Chinese and Thai state policies differ significantly. While the Chinese government proactively advances policies and strategies to encourage Chinese businesses abroad, the Thai government is slow to respond to increasing flow of transnational Chinese entrepreneurs which leads to competition with Thai entrepreneurs who are increasingly impacted.
KeywordsChinese migrant entrepreneurs Chinese entrepreneurship Tourism-related business Business diversification Emergent entrepreneurial class
- Barabantseva, Elena. 2011. Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities, and Nationalism: De-centering China. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- BOI (Thailand Board of Investment). 2017. “A Guide to the Board of Investment 2017.” Accessed December 24, 2017. http://www.boi.go.th/index.php?page=guides.
- Chan, K. Bun, ed. 2000. Chinese Business Networks: State, Economy and Culture. Singapore: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Chan, K. Bun, and B.K. Ng. 2001. “Singapore.” In Chinese Business in Southeast Asia: Contesting Cultural Explanations, Researching Entrepreneurship, edited by Terence E. Gomez and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, 38–61. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Chen, Dung-Sheng, Sue-Ching Jou, and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. 2008. “Transforming Guanxi Networks: Taiwanese Enterprises’ Production Networks in Thailand and Vietnam.” In Chinese Entrepreneurship in a Global Era, edited by Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong, 149–165. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Duara, Prasenjit. 1997. “Nationalists among Transnationals: Overseas Chinese and the Idea of China, 1900–1911.” In Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism, edited by Aiwha Ong and Donald Nonini. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Duara, Prasenjit. 2005. “The Legacy of Empire and Nations in East Asia.” In China Inside Out: Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism, edited by Pal Nyiri and Joana Breindenbach, 35–54. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
- Fei, Xiaotong. 1992. From the Soil: The Foundation of Chinese Society. Translated by Gary G. Hamilton and Wang Zheng. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Gomez, Edmund T., and Michael Hsiao, eds. 2001. Chinese Business in South-East Asia: Contesting Cultural Explanations, Researching Entrepreneurship. Surrey: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
- Graceffo, Antonio. 2016. “A Look at China’s Middle Class.” PhD diss., Shanghai University of Sport, China PRC.Google Scholar
- Hays, Jeffrey. 2015. “Facts and Details Middle Class in China”. Accessed March 2017. http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat11/sub70/item156.html.
- Hefner, W. Robert. 1998. “Introduction: Society and Modernity in the New Asian Capitalism.” In Market Cultures: Society and Morality in the New Asian Capitalisms, edited by Robert W. Hefner, 1–38. Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Kipnis, Andrew. 1997. Producing Guanxi: Sentiment, Self and Subculture in a North China Village. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Google Scholar
- Liu, Hong. 2008. “Immigrant Transnational Entrepreneurship and Linkages with the State/Network: Sino-Singaporean Experience in a Comparative Perspective.” In Chinese Entrepreneurship in a Global Era, edited by Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong, 118–148. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Liu, Hong. 2012. “Beyond a Revisionist Turn: Networks, State and the Changing Dynamics of Diasporic Chinese Entrepreneurship.” China: An International Journal 10, no. 3: 20–41.Google Scholar
- Liu, Xiangfeng. 2016. “SME Development in China: A Policy Perspective on SME Industrial Clustering.” In SME in Asia and Globalization, edited by H. Lim, 37–68. ERIA Research Project Report 2007. Accessed September 10, 2016. http://www.eria.org/SME%20Development%20in%20China_A%20Policy%20Perspective%20on%20SME%20Industrial%20Clustering.pdf.
- Menkhoff, Thomas, and Solvay Gerke, eds. 2002. Chinese Entrepreneurship and Asian Business Networks. London: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
- Milton-Smith, John. 1999. The Making of Technopreneur. Singapore: ITE Alumni Association.Google Scholar
- Nyiri, Pal. 2007. Chinese in Russia and Eastern Europe: A Middleman Minority in a Transnational Era. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Nyiri, Pal, and Igor R. Saveliev, eds. 2002. Globalizing Chinese Migration: Trends in Europe and Asia. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Ong, Aiwha. 2005. “Anthropological Concepts for the Study of Nationalism.” In China Inside Out, edited by Pal Nyiri and Joana Breidenbach, 1–34. Budapest: Central European Press.Google Scholar
- Redding, Gordon S. 1995. The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Santasombat, Yos. 2015. “Introduction.” In Impact of China’s Rise on the Mekong Region, edited by Yos Santasombat, 1–22. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
- Siriphon, Aranya. 2015. “‘Xinyimin’, New Chinese Migrants and the Influence of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan on the Northern Thai Border.” In Impact of China’s Rise on the Mekong Region, edited by Yos Santasombat, 147–166. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
- Siriphon, Aranya. 2016. “Border Guanxi: Xinyimin and Transborder Trade in Northern Thailand.” In Chinese Encounters in Southeast Asia: How People, Money, and Ideas from China Are Changing a Region, edited by Pal Nyiri and Danielle Tan, 59–79. Settle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Smart, Alan, and Josephine Smart, eds. 2005. Petty Capitalists and Globalization: Flexibility, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Development. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
- Tsang, Eric W.K. 1998. “Can Guanxi be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage for Doing Business in China?” Academy of Management Executive 12, no. 2: 64–73.Google Scholar
- Weller, R.P. 1998. “Divided Market Cultures in China: Gender, Enterprise, and Religion.” In Market Cultures: Society and Morality in the New Asian Capitalisms, edited by Robert W. Hefner, 78–103. Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Whitley, Richard. 1992. Business System in East Asia. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Wong, Raymond Sin-Kwok. 2008. “Introduction: A New Breed of Chinese Entrepreneurs? Critical Reflections.” In Chinese Entrepreneurship in a Global Era, edited by Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong, 3–26. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Yang, Mayfair. 1994. Gifts, Favors, and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationships in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Yarzebinski, J. 1992. “Understanding and Encouraging the Entrepreneur.” Economic Development Review 10, no. 1: 32–35.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Xiaohong. 2010. “Who Are China’s Middle Class?” Retrieved March 2, 2017. http://www.china.org.cn/china/2010-01/23/content_19293900.htm.
- Zhou, Xiaohong. 2017. “Who Are China’s Middle Class?” 2010. Accessed March 2, 2017. http://www.china.org.cn/china/2010-01/23/content_19293900.html.
- Zhuang, Guotu. 2000. “Policies of the Chinese Government toward Overseas Chinese Since 1978.” China Area Studies Series, no. 10. Tokyo: Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Scientific Research in Priority Areas 113, Structural Changes in Contemporary China.Google Scholar
- Zhuang, Guotu. 2007. “China’s Policies towards Overseas Chinese.” In The Encyclopedia of the Overseas Chinese, edited by L. Pan, 2nd edition. Singapore: Didier Millet.Google Scholar