Advertisement

Recent Advances in Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Plants Through Chemical Priming: An Overview

  • Muhammad Arslan Ashraf
  • Ali Akbar
  • Sajjad Hassan Askari
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Rizwan Rasheed
  • Iqbal Hussain
Chapter

Abstract

Plants under natural conditions often face multiple environmental constraints in terms of submergence, temperature extremes, salinity, and drought stress. Plant growth and productivity is negatively influenced by these abiotic stresses. Presently, a variety of approaches are being used to overcome abiotic stresses in plants. Recently, seed soaking with various priming agents has emerged as a promising strategy to induce tolerance in plants against abiotic stresses. In seed priming, seeds are treated with synthetic or natural compounds prior to germination so as to initiate specific physiological state in plants. Seed priming could also be defined as physiological state which enables plants to more quickly respond to abiotic stresses. Plants raised from seeds treated with various priming agents tend to show greater abiotic stress tolerance over unprimed seeds. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance through priming is an intricate process that involves various metabolic events. Primed seeds show early and uniform germination and seedling emergence. Seed priming enables plants to survive adverse environmental conditions and gives appropriate yield. In this book chapter, we have discussed a wide range of chemical which are extensively being used for seed priming.

Keyword

Seed preconditioning Chemical priming Hormonal priming Redox priming Hydropriming 

References

  1. Abbate PE, Dardanelli JL, Cantarero MG, Maturano M, Melchiori RJM, Suero EE (2004) Climatic and water availability effects on water-use efficiency in wheat. Crop Sci 44(2):474–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abebe AT, Modi A (2009) Hydro-priming in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Res J Seed Sci 2(2):23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams S, Cockshull K, Cave C (2001) Effect of temperature on the growth and development of tomato fruits. Ann Bot 88(5):869–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Afzal I, Basra SMA, Ahmad N, Farooq M (2005) Optimization of hormonal priming techniques for alleviation of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Google Scholar
  5. Agami RA (2014) Applications of ascorbic acid or proline increase resistance to salt stress in barley seedlings. Biol Plant 58(2):341–347.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-014-0392-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad S (2012) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in biology. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad A, Diwan H, Abrol YP (2010) Global climate change, stress and plant productivity. In: Pareek A, Sopory SK, Bohnert HJ (eds) Abiotic stress adaptation in plants: physiological, molecular and genomic foundation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 503–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3112-9_23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmadvand G, Soleimani F, Saadatian B, Pouya M (2012) Effects of seed priming on germination and emergence traits of two soybean cultivars under salinity stress. J Basic Appl Sci Res 3:234–241Google Scholar
  9. Akbari G, Sanavy S, Yousefzadeh S (2007) Effect of auxin and salt stress (NaCl) on seed germination of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak J Biol Sci PJBS 10(15):2557–2561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aldesuquy H, Baka Z, Mickky B (2014) Kinetin and spermine mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: leaf area, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of flag leaf at ear emergence. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 1(2):77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ali Q, Ashraf M, Shahbaz M, Humera H (2008) Ameliorating effect of foliar applied proline on nutrient uptake in water stressed maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Pak J Bot 40(1):211–219Google Scholar
  12. Al-Mudaris MA, Jutzi SC (1999) The influence of fertilizer-based seed priming treatments on emergence and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor and Pennisetum glaucum in pot trials under greenhouse conditions. J Agron Crop Sci 182(2):135–142.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.1999.00293.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amooaghaie R (2011) The effect of hydro and osmopriming on alfalfa seed germination and antioxidant defenses under salt stress. Afr J Biotechnol 10(33):6269–6275Google Scholar
  14. Anjum F, Yaseen M, Rasul E, Wahid A, Anjum S (2003) Water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). II. Effect on chemical composition and chlorophyll contents. Pak J Agric Sci 40:45–49Google Scholar
  15. Anosheh HP, Sadeghi H, Emam Y (2011) Chemical priming with urea and KNO3 enhances maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) seed viability under abiotic stress. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 14(4):289–295.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-011-0039-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arif M, Waqas M, Nawab K, Shahid M (2007) Effect of seed priming in Zn solutions on chickpea and wheat. Afr Crop Sci Pro 8:237–240Google Scholar
  17. Arif M, Jan MT, Marwat KB, Khan MA (2008) Seed priming improves emergence and yield of soybean. Pak J Bot 40(3):1169–1177Google Scholar
  18. Ashraf M, Bray C (1993) DNA synthesis in osmoprimed leek (Allium porrum L.) seeds and evidence for repair and replicationGoogle Scholar
  19. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59(2):206–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ashraf M, Rauf H (2001) Inducing salt tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) through seed priming with chloride salts: growth and ion transport at early growth stages. Acta Physiol Plant 23(4):407–414.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-001-0050-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ashraf M, Iqbal M, Hussain I, Rasheed R (2015a) Physiological and biochemical approaches for salinity tolerance. Managing salt tolerance in plants: molecular and genomic perspectives, 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ashraf MA, Rasheed R, Hussain I, Iqbal M, Haider MZ, Parveen S, Sajid MA (2015b) Hydrogen peroxide modulates antioxidant system and nutrient relation in maize (Zea mays L.) under water-deficit conditions. Arch Agron Soil Sci 61(4):507–523.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2014.938644 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bajehbaj AA (2010) The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower germination and seedling grown under salinity conditions. Afr J Biotechnol 9(12):1764–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barba-Espín G, Hernández JA, Diaz-Vivancos P (2012) Role of H2O2 in pea seed germination. Plant Signal Behav 7(2):193–195.  https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.18881 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Barnabás B, Jäger K, Fehér A (2008) The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant Cell Environ 31(1):11–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Basra SMA, Pannu IA, Afzal I (2003) Evaluation of seedling vigor of hydro and matriprimed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Int J Agric Biol 5(2):121–123Google Scholar
  27. Baxter A, Mittler R, Suzuki N (2013) ROS as key players in plant stress signalling. J Exp Bot 65(5):1229–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bhaskara Reddy M, Arul J, Angers P, Couture L (1999) Chitosan treatment of wheat seeds induces resistance to Fusarium graminearum and improves seed quality. J Agric Food Chem 47(3):1208–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bielen A, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, Cuypers A (2013) The influence of metal stress on the availability and redox state of ascorbate, and possible interference with its cellular functions. Int J Mol Sci 14(3):6382–6413PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bisht C, Badoni A, Vashishtha R, Nautiyal M (2009) Photoperiodic effect on seed germination in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium vis.) under the influence of some growth regulators. J Am Sci 5:147–150Google Scholar
  31. Bota J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2004) Is photosynthesis limited by decreased Rubisco activity and RuBP content under progressive water stress? New Phytol 162(3):671–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brocklehurst PA, Dearman J, Drew RLK (1984) Effects of osmotic priming on seed germination and seedling growth in leek. Sci Hortic 24(3):201–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(84)90103-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Busch S, Lorenz CD, Taylor J, Pardo LC, McLain SE (2014) Short-range interactions of concentrated proline in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem B 118(49):14267–14277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cakmak I (2005) The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168(4):521–530.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Caseiro R, Bennett M, Marcos-Filho J (2004) Comparison of three priming techniques for onion seed lots differing in initial seed quality. Seed Sci Technol 32(2):365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cayuela E, Pérez-Alfocea F, Caro M, Bolarín MC (1996) Priming of seeds with NaCl induces physiological changes in tomato plants grown under salt stress. Physiol Plant 96(2):231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00207.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chen K, Arora R (2011) Dynamics of the antioxidant system during seed osmopriming, post-priming germination, and seedling establishment in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Plant Sci 180(2):212–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.007 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen THH, Murata N (2002) Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5(3):250–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00255-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chen THH, Murata N (2008) Glycinebetaine: an effective protectant against abiotic stress in plants. Trends Plant Sci 13(9):499–505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen TH, Murata N (2011) Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications. Plant Cell Environ 34(1):1–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chen CC, Sung JM (2001) Priming bitter gourd seeds with selenium solution enhances germinability and antioxidative responses under sub-optimal temperature. Physiol Plant 111(1):9–16.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2001.1110102.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu J-K (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45(2):437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cuartero J, Fernández-Muñoz R (1998) Tomato and salinity. Sci Hortic 78(1):83–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00191-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cuin TA, Shabala S (2007) Compatible solutes reduce ROS-induced potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell Environ 30(7):875–885.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01674.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dalvi AA, Bhalerao SA (2013) Response of plants towards heavy metal toxicity: an overview of avoidance, tolerance and uptake mechanism. Ann Plant Sci 2(09):362–368Google Scholar
  46. Demir I, Mavi K (2004) The effect of priming on seedling emergence of differentially matured watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai) seeds. Sci Hortic 102(4):467–473.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2004.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Demir I, Ozuaydın I, Yasar F, Van Staden J (2012) Effect of smoke-derived butenolide priming treatment on pepper and salvia seeds in relation to transplant quality and catalase activity. S Afr J Bot 78:83–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2011.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Draganic I, Lekic S (2012) Seed priming with antioxidants improves sunflower seed germination and seedling growth under unfavorable germination conditions. Turk J Agric For 36(4):421–428Google Scholar
  49. Dubrovsky JG (1996) Seed hydration memory in Sonoran Desert cacti and its ecological implication. Am J Bot 83:624–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Duncan DR, Widholm JM (1987) Proline accumulation and its implication in cold tolerance of regenerable maize callus. Plant Physiol 83(3):703–708PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Egilla J, Davies F, Boutton T (2005) Drought stress influences leaf water content, photosynthesis, and water-use efficiency of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis at three potassium concentrations. Photosynthetica 43(1):135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ehsanpour AA, Fatahian N (2003) Effects of salt and proline on Medicago sativa callus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 73(1):53–56.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022619523726 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eisvand H, Tavakkol-Afshari R, Sharifzadeh F, Maddah Arefi H, Hesamzadeh Hejazi S (2010) Effects of hormonal priming and drought stress on activity and isozyme profiles of antioxidant enzymes in deteriorated seed of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum Host). Seed Sci Technol 38(2):280–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Elkoca E, Haliloglu K, Esitken A, Ercisli S (2007) Hydro- and osmopriming improve chickpea germination. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 57(3):193–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710600914087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. El-Ramady H, Abdalla N, Alshaal T, Domokos-Szabolcsy E, Elhawat N, Prokisch J, Sztrik A, Fári M, El-Marsafawy S, Shams MS (2015) Selenium in soils under climate change, implication for human health. Environ Chem Lett 13(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Farahbakhsh H (2012) Germination and seedling growth in un-primed and primed seeds of Fenel as affected by reduced water potential induced by NaCl. Int Res J App Basic Sci 3(4):737–744Google Scholar
  57. Farhoudi R, Sharifzadeh F (2006) The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings grown under saline conditions. Indian J Crop Sci 1(1–2):74–78Google Scholar
  58. Farooq M, Basra SM, Rehman H, Mehmood T (2006) Germination and early seedling growth as affected by pre-sowing ethanol seed treatments in fine rice. Int J Agric Biol 8:19–22Google Scholar
  59. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra S (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29(1):185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fedoroff N, Battisti D, Beachy R, Cooper P, Fischhoff D, Hodges C, Knauf V, Lobell D, Mazur B, Molden D (2010) Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century. Science 327(5967):833–834PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Filippou P, Bouchagier P, Skotti E, Fotopoulos V (2014) Proline and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species metabolism is involved in the tolerant response of the invasive plant species Ailanthus altissima to drought and salinity. Environ Exp Bot 97:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Flora SJ (2009) Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 2(4):191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179(4):945–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Foti R, Abureni K, Tigere A, Gotosa J, Gere J (2008) The efficacy of different seed priming osmotica on the establishment of maize (Zea mays L.) caryopses. J Arid Environ 72(6):1127–1130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fu J, Huang B (2001) Involvement of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adaptation of two cool-season grasses to localized drought stress. Environ Exp Bot 45(2):105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fujita M, Fujita Y, Noutoshi Y, Takahashi F, Narusaka Y, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (2006) Crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses: a current view from the points of convergence in the stress signaling networks. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9(4):436–442.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2006.05.014 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Gajalakshmi S, Iswarya V, Ashwini R, Divya G, Mythili S, Sathiavelu A (2012) Evaluation of heavy metals in medicinal plants growing in Vellore District. Eur J Exp Biol 2(5):1457–1461Google Scholar
  68. Gao Y-P, Bonham-Smith PC, Gusta LV (2002) The role of peroxiredoxin antioxidant and calmodulin in ABA-primed seeds of Brassica napus exposed to abiotic stresses during germination. J Plant Physiol 159(9):951–958.  https://doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00782 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Garg B (2003) Nutrient uptake and management under drought: nutrient-moisture interaction. Curr Agric 27(1/2):1–8Google Scholar
  70. Gaspar T, Franck T, Bisbis B, Kevers C, Jouve L, Hausman J-F, Dommes J (2002) Concepts in plant stress physiology. Application to plant tissue cultures. Plant Growth Regul 37(3):263–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ghassemi-Golezani K, Esmaeilpour B (2008) The effect of salt priming on the performance of differentially matured cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds. Notulae Botanicae Hortic Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 36(2):67Google Scholar
  72. Giri J (2011) Glycinebetaine and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Signal Behav 6(11):1746–1751.  https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.6.11.17801 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Guan Y-J, Hu J, Wang X-J, Shao C-X (2009) Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 10(6):427–433.  https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0820373 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Gul B, Khan MA (2004) Effect of growth regulators and osmotica in alleviating salinity effects on the germination of Salicornia utahensis. Pak J Bot 35(5; SPI):885–894Google Scholar
  75. Haghpanah A, Younesi O, Moradi A (2009) The effect of priming on seedling emergence of differentially matured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seeds. J Appl Sci Res 5:729–732Google Scholar
  76. Hall A (2001) Crop developmental responses to temperature, photoperiod, and light quality. In: Crop response to environment, pp 83–87Google Scholar
  77. Hall J (2002) Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. J Exp Bot 53(366):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hancock JT, Neill SJ, Wilson ID (2011) Nitric oxide and ABA in the control of plant function. Plant Sci 181(5):555–559.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.03.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Harada E, Kim J-A, Meyer AJ, Hell R, Clemens S, Choi Y-E (2010) Expression profiling of tobacco leaf trichomes identifies genes for biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant Cell Physiol 51(10):1627–1637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Harb E (1992) Effect of soaking seeds in some growth regulators and micronutrients on growth, some chemical constituents and yield of faba bean and cotton plants. Bull Fac Agric Cairo Univ (Egypt) 43:429–452Google Scholar
  81. Harris D, Tripathi R, Joshi A (2002) On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. In: Direct seeding: research strategies and opportunities. International Research Institute, Manila, pp 231–240Google Scholar
  82. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, da Silva JAT, Fujita M (2012) Plant response and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defense is a key factor. In: Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, pp 261–315Google Scholar
  83. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M, Ahmad P, Chandna R, Prasad M, Ozturk M (2013) Enhancing plant productivity under salt stress: relevance of poly-omics. In: Salt stress in plants. Springer, pp 113–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hauser M-T (2014) Molecular basis of natural variation and environmental control of trichome patterning. Front Plant Sci 5:320PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Howarth C (2005) Genetic improvements of tolerance to high temperature. In: Ashraf M, Harris PJC (eds) Abiotic stresses–plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. The Haworth Press, New York, pp 277–300Google Scholar
  86. Hua-Long L, Han-Jing S, Jing-Guo W, Yang L, De-Tang Z, Hong-Wei Z (2014) Effect of seed soaking with exogenous proline on seed germination of rice under salt stress. J Northeast Agric Univ (Engl Ed) 21(3):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-8104(14)60062-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Iba K (2002) Acclimative response to temperature stress in higher plants: approaches of gene engineering for temperature tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53(1):225–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2005) Changes in growth, photosynthetic capacity and ionic relations in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to pre-sowing seed treatment with polyamines. Plant Growth Regul 46(1):19–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-005-5901-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2007) Seed preconditioning modulates growth, ionic relations, and photosynthetic capacity in adult plants of hexaploid wheat under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 30(3):381–396.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160601171330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Iqbal M, Ashraf M, Jamil A, Ur-Rehman S (2006) Does seed priming induce changes in the levels of some endogenous plant hormones in hexaploid wheat plants under salt stress? J Integr Plant Biol 48(2):181–189.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00181.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Islam MM, Hoque MA, Okuma E, Banu MNA, Shimoishi Y, Nakamura Y, Murata Y (2009) Exogenous proline and glycinebetaine increase antioxidant enzyme activities and confer tolerance to cadmium stress in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 166(15):1587–1597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2009.04.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jafar MZ, Farooq M, Cheema MA, Afzal I, Basra SMA, Wahid MA, Aziz T, Shahid M (2012) Improving the performance of wheat by seed priming under saline conditions. J Agron Crop Sci 198(1):38–45.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2011.00485.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jain M, Mathur G, Koul S, Sarin N (2001) Ameliorative effects of proline on salt stress-induced lipid peroxidation in cell lines of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Plant Cell Rep 20(5):463–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002990100353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jain N, Kulkarni MG, van Staden J (2006) A butenolide, isolated from smoke, can overcome the detrimental effects of extreme temperatures during tomato seed germination. Plant Growth Regul 49(2):263–267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-006-9136-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Manivannan P, Panneerselvam R (2007a) Responses of antioxidant defense system of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. to paclobutrazol treatment under salinity. Acta Physiol Plant 29(3):205–209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-007-0025-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Sankar B, Kishorekumar A, Sankari S, Panneerselvam R (2007b) Paclobutrazol enhances photosynthesis and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus. Process Biochem 42(11):1566–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jaleel CA, Riadh K, Gopi R, Manivannan P, Ines J, Al-Juburi HJ, Chang-Xing Z, Hong-Bo S, Panneerselvam R (2009) Antioxidant defense responses: physiological plasticity in higher plants under abiotic constraints. Acta Physiol Plant 31(3):427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jett LW, Welbaum GE, Morse RD (1996) Effects of matric and osmotic priming treatments on broccoli seed germination. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 121(3):423–429Google Scholar
  99. Jisha KC, Vijayakumari K, Puthur JT (2013) Seed priming for abiotic stress tolerance: an overview. Acta Physiol Plant 35(5):1381–1396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-012-1186-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jozefczak M, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, Cuypers A (2012) Glutathione is a key player in metal-induced oxidative stress defenses. Int J Mol Sci 13(3):3145–3175PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kalaji HM, Bosa K, Kościelniak J, Żuk-Gołaszewska K (2011) Effects of salt stress on photosystem II efficiency and CO 2 assimilation of two Syrian barley landraces. Environ Exp Bot 73:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kamran M, Shahbaz M, Ashraf M, Akram NA (2009) Alleviation of drought-induced adverse effects in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using proline as a pre-sowing seed treatment. Pak J Bot 41(2):621–632Google Scholar
  103. Kaur G, Asthir B (2015) Proline: a key player in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Biol Plant 59(4):609–619.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-015-0549-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kaur S, Gupta AK, Kaur N (2002) Effect of osmo- and hydropriming of chickpea seeds on seedling growth and carbohydrate metabolism under water deficit stress. Plant Growth Regul 37(1):17–22.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1020310008830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kaur S, Gupta AK, Kaur N (2005) Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. J Agron Crop Sci 191(2):81–87.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2004.00140.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kaur G, Athar M, Alam MS (2008) Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages. Chem Biol Interact 171(3):272–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kaur D, Grewal S, Kaur J, Singh S (2017) Differential proline metabolism in vegetative and reproductive tissues determine drought tolerance in chickpea. Biol Plant 61(2):359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kaya MD, Okçu G, Atak M, Çıkılı Y, Kolsarıcı Ö (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur J Agron 24(4):291–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2005.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Khalil SK, Mexal JG, Murray LW (2001) Germination of soybean seed primed in aerated solution of polyethylene glycol 8000. Online J Biol Sci 1(3):105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Khan MA, Gul B, Weber DJ (2002) Improving seed germination of Salicornia rubra (Chenopodiaceae) under saline conditions using germination-regulating chemicals. West N Am Nat 62:101–105Google Scholar
  111. Khan MB, Gurchani MA, Hussain M, Freed S, Mahmood K (2011) Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming. Pak J Bot 43(3):1495–1499Google Scholar
  112. Korkmaz A, Pill W (2003) The effect of different priming treatments and storage conditions on germination performance of lettuce seeds. Eur J Hortic Sci 68:260–265Google Scholar
  113. Kulkarni MG, Sparg SG, Light ME, Van Staden J (2006) Stimulation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling vigour by smoke-water and butenolide. J Agron Crop Sci 192(5):395–398.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2006.00213.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kumar A, Maiti SK (2013) Availability of chromium, nickel and other associated heavy metals of ultramafic and serpentine soil/rock and in plants. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng 3(2):256–268Google Scholar
  115. Kumar M, Sirhindi G, Bhardwaj R, Kumar S, Jain G (2010) Effect of exogenous H 2 O 2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stressGoogle Scholar
  116. Lazaridou M, Noitsakis B (2003) The effect of water deficit on yield and water use efficiency of lucerne. In: Optimal forage systems for animal production and the environment. Proceedings of the 12th symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Pleven, Bulgaria, 26–28 May 2003. Bulgarian Association for Grassland and Forage Production (BAGFP), pp 344–347Google Scholar
  117. Lee S, Moon JS, Domier LL, Korban SS (2002) Molecular characterization of phytochelatin synthase expression in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol Biochem 40(9):727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Li J, Yin LY, Jongsma MA, Wang CY (2011) Effects of light, hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Ind Crop Prod 34(3):1543–1549.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Manickavelu A, Nadarajan N, Ganesh S, Gnanamalar R, Babu RC (2006) Drought tolerance in rice: morphological and molecular genetic consideration. Plant Growth Regul 50(2–3):121–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Manjunatha G, Raj SN, Shetty NP, Shetty HS (2008) Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease. Pestic Biochem Physiol 91(1):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2007.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Marschner H (2011) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  122. Maughan S, Foyer CH (2006) Engineering and genetic approaches to modulating the glutathione network in plants. Physiol Plant 126(3):382–397.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00684.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McWilliams D (2003) Drought strategies for cotton, cooperative extension service circular 582, College of Agriculture and Home Economics. New Mexico State University, Las CrucesGoogle Scholar
  124. Michalak A (2006) Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in plants growing under heavy metal stress. Pol J Environ Stud 15(4):523–530Google Scholar
  125. Miller G, Honig A, Stein H, Suzuki N, Mittler R, Zilberstein A (2009) Unraveling Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-proline cycle in plants by uncoupled expression of proline oxidation enzymes. J Biol Chem 284(39):26482–26492PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mirza H, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010) Selenium in higher plants: physiological role, antioxidant metabolism and abiotic stress tolerance. J Plant Sci 5(4):354–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7(9):405–410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02312-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mohanty M, Patra HK (2013) Effect of ionic and chelate assisted hexavalent chromium on mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. wilczek. var k-851) during seedling growth. J Stress Physiol Biochem 9(2):232–241Google Scholar
  129. Monakhova O, Chernyad’ev I (2002) Protective role of kartolin-4 in wheat plants exposed to soil draught. Appl Biochem Microbiol 38(4):373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Moradi A, Younesi O (2009) Effects of osmo-and hydro-priming on seed parameters of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3(3):1696–1700Google Scholar
  131. Mourato M, Reis R, Martins LL (2012) Characterization of plant antioxidative system in response to abiotic stresses: a focus on heavy metal toxicity. In: Advances in selected plant physiology aspects. InTechGoogle Scholar
  132. Munns R, James RA, Läuchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57(5):1025–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nagajyoti P, Lee K, Sreekanth T (2010) Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett 8(3):199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nam N, Chauhan Y, Johansen C (2001) Effect of timing of drought stress on growth and grain yield of extra-short-duration pigeonpea lines. J Agric Sci 136(2):179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nath K, Singh D, Shyam S, Sharma YK (2008) Effect of chromium and tannery effluent toxicity on metabolism and growth in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. Saviex Hassk) seedling. Res Environ Life Sci 1(3):91–94Google Scholar
  136. Nawaz A, Amjad M, Pervez MA, Afzal I (2011) Effect of halopriming on germination and seedling vigor of tomato. Afr J Agric Res 6(15):3551–3559Google Scholar
  137. Nematshahi N, Lahouti M, Ganjeali A (2012) Accumulation of chromium and its effect on growth of (Allium cepa cv. Hybrid). Eur J Exp Biol 2:969–974Google Scholar
  138. Nerd A, Nobel PS (1991) Effects of drought on water relations and nonstructural carbohydrates in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica. Physiol Plant 81(4):495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Okçu G, Kaya MD, Atak M (2005) Effects of salt and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Turk J Agric For 29(4):237–242Google Scholar
  140. Oliveira H (2012) Chromium as an environmental pollutant: insights on induced plant toxicity. J Bot 2012:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ozbingol N, Corbineau F, Come D (1998) Responses of tomato seeds to osmoconditioning as related to temperature and oxygen. Seed Sci Res 8(3):377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Panda S, Choudhury S (2005) Chromium stress in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17(1):95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Papageorgiou GC, Murata N (1995) The unusually strong stabilizing effects of glycine betaine on the structure and function of the oxygen-evolving photosystem II complex. Photosynth Res 44(3):243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00048597 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60(3):324–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Parihar P, Singh S, Singh R, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2015) Effect of salinity stress on plants and its tolerance strategies: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(6):4056–4075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Park E-J, Jeknic Z, Sakamoto A, Denoma J, Murata N, Chen TH (2003) Genetic engineering of cold-tolerant tomato via glycinebetaine biosynthesis. Cryobiol Cryotechnol 49:77–85Google Scholar
  147. Park E-J, Jeknić Z, Sakamoto A, DeNoma J, Yuwansiri R, Murata N, Chen THH (2004) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in tomato protects seeds, plants, and flowers from chilling damage. Plant J 40(4):474–487.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02237.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Park E-J, Jeknic Z, Chen TH (2006) Exogenous application of glycinebetaine increases chilling tolerance in tomato plants. Plant Cell Physiol 47(6):706–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Patade VY, Bhargava S, Suprasanna P (2009) Halopriming imparts tolerance to salt and PEG induced drought stress in sugarcane. Agric Ecosyst Environ 134(1):24–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Peuke A, Schraml C, Hartung W, Rennenberg H (2002) Identification of drought-sensitive beech ecotypes by physiological parameters. New Phytol 154(2):373–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Posmyk MM, Janas KM (2007) Effects of seed hydropriming in presence of exogenous proline on chilling injury limitation in Vigna radiata L. seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 29(6):509–517.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-007-0061-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rai V, Vajpayee P, Singh SN, Mehrotra S (2004) Effect of chromium accumulation on photosynthetic pigments, oxidative stress defense system, nitrate reduction, proline level and eugenol content of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Plant Sci 167(5):1159–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Randhir R, Shetty K (2005) Developmental stimulation of total phenolics and related antioxidant activity in light- and dark-germinated corn by natural elicitors. Process Biochem 40(5):1721–1732.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rashid A, Harris D, Hollington P, Ali S (2004) On-farm seed priming reduces yield losses of mungbean (Vigna radiata) associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Crop Prot 23(11):1119–1124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2004.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rashid A, Hollington PA, Harris D, Khan P (2006) On-farm seed priming for barley on normal, saline and saline–sodic soils in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Eur J Agron 24(3):276–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2005.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rastgoo L, Alemzadeh A, Afsharifar A (2011) Isolation of two novel isoforms encoding zinc-and copper-transporting P1B-ATPase from Gouan (Aeluropus littoralis). Plant Omics J 4(7):377–383Google Scholar
  157. Rathinasabapathi B (2000) Metabolic engineering for stress tolerance: installing osmoprotectant synthesis pathways. Ann Bot 86(4):709–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Reddy CS, Smith JD (1978) Effects of delayed post treatment of gamma-irradiated seed with cysteine on the growth of Sorghum bicolor seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 18(4):241–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-8472(78)90050-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rhodes D, Hanson A (1993) Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 44(1):357–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rithichai P, Sampantharat P, Jirakiattikul Y (2009) Coriander (Coriandrum sativum l.) seed quality as affected by accelerated aging and subsequent hydropriming. Asian J Food Agro Ind 1:217–221Google Scholar
  161. Rouhi HR, Afshari RT, Moosavi SA, Gharineh MH (2010) Effects of osmopriming on germination and vigour traits of bersim clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.). Notulae Sci Biol 2(4):59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rouhi HR, Aboutalebian MA, Sharif-Zadeh F (2011) Effects of hydro and osmopriming on drought stress tolerance during germination in four grass species. Int J Agrisience 1(2):107–114Google Scholar
  163. Roy D, Basu N, Bhunia A, Banerjee SK (1993) Counteraction of exogenous L-proline with NaCl in salt-sensitive cultivar of rice. Biol Plant 35(1):69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02921122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Ruan S, Xue Q (2002) Effects of chitosan coating on seed germination and salt-tolerance of seedling in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Zuo Wu Xue Bao 28(6):803–808Google Scholar
  165. Rubluo A (1982) The effect of L-cysteine on presoaked barley seeds treated with methyl methanesulfonate. Experientia 38(3):326–327.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01949371 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sadak MS, Mostafa HA (2015) Physiological role of pre-sowing seed with proline on some growth, biochemical aspects, yield quantity and quality of two sunflower cultivars grown under seawater salinity stress. Sci Agric 9(1):60–69Google Scholar
  167. Saha P, Chatterjee P, Biswas AK (2010) NaCl pretreatment alleviates salt stress by enhancement of antioxidant defense system and osmolyte accumulation in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)Google Scholar
  168. Sahu M, Kumawat S, D’souza S, Ramaswamy N, Singh G (2005) Sulphydryl bioregulator technology for increasing mustard production. Research Bulletin RAU-BARC, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  169. Sakamoto A, Murata N (2000) Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in plants: current status and implications for enhancement of stress tolerance. J Exp Bot 51(342):81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sakamoto A, Murata N (2002) The role of glycine betaine in the protection of plants from stress: clues from transgenic plants. Plant Cell Environ 25(2):163–171PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Salama KH, Mansour MM, Hassan NS (2011) Choline priming improves salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Aust J Basic Appl Sci 5:126–132Google Scholar
  172. Samantaray S, Rout GR, Das P (1998) Role of chromium on plant growth and metabolism. Acta Physiol Plant 20(2):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Samarah NH (2005) Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley. Agron Sustain Dev 25(1):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sarwar N, Yousaf S, Jamil FF (2006) Induction of salt tolerance in chickpea by using simple and safe chemicals. Pak J Bot 38(2):325Google Scholar
  175. Savvides A, Ali S, Tester M, Fotopoulos V (2016) Chemical priming of plants against multiple abiotic stresses: mission possible? Trends Plant Sci 21(4):329–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schutzendubel A, Polle A (2002) Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. J Exp Bot 53(372):1351–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Sebastiani L, Scebba F, Tognetti R (2004) Heavy metal accumulation and growth responses in poplar clones Eridano (Populus deltoides× maximowiczii) and I-214 (P.× euramericana) exposed to industrial waste. Environ Exp Bot 52(1):79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sedghi M, Nemati A, Amanpour-Balaneji B, Gholipouri A (2010) Influence of different priming materials on germination and seedling establishment of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) under salinity stress. World Appl Sci J 11(5):604–609Google Scholar
  179. Shahrokhi M, Tehranifar A, Hadizadeh H, Selahvarzi Y (2011) Effect of drought stress and paclobutrazol-treated seeds on physiological response of Festuca arundinacea L. master and Lolium perenne L. barrage. J Biol Environ Sci 5(14):77–85Google Scholar
  180. Shakirova FM, Sakhabutdinova AR, Bezrukova MV, Fatkhutdinova RA, Fatkhutdinova DR (2003) Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Sci 164(3):317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31(5):739–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shao C, Hu J, Song W, Hu W (2005) Effects of seed priming with chitosan solutions of different acidity on seed germination and physiological characteristics of maize seedling. J Zhejiang Univ (Agric Life Sci) 31(6):705–708Google Scholar
  183. Sharma SS, Dietz K-J (2006) The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. J Exp Bot 57(4):711–726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M (2012) Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. J Bot 2012:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Siddique M, Hamid A, Islam M (2000) Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Bot Bull Acad Sin 41:35–39Google Scholar
  186. Singh B, Rao G (1993) Effects of chemical soaking of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed on vigour index. Indian J Agric Sci 2:232–233Google Scholar
  187. Singh HP, Mahajan P, Kaur S, Batish DR, Kohli RK (2013) Chromium toxicity and tolerance in plants. Environ Chem Lett 11(3):229–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sivritepe HÖ, Sivritepe N, Eriş A, Turhan E (2005) The effects of NaCl pre-treatments on salt tolerance of melons grown under long-term salinity. Sci Hortic 106(4):568–581.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Somerville C, Briscoe J (2001) Genetic engineering and water. American Association for the Advancement of SciencePubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Srivastava S, Jain R (2011) In-situ monitoring of chromium cytotoxicity in sugarcane. J Environ Biol 32(6):759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Srivastava A, Ramaswamy N, Mukopadhyaya R, Jincy MC, D’Souza S (2008) Thiourea modulates the expression and activity profile of mtATPase under salinity stress in seeds of Brassica juncea. Ann Bot 103(3):403–410PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Srivastava AK, Lokhande VH, Patade VY, Suprasanna P, Sjahril R, D’Souza SF (2010a) Comparative evaluation of hydro-, chemo-, and hormonal-priming methods for imparting salt and PEG stress tolerance in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Acta Physiol Plant 32(6):1135–1144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0505-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Srivastava AK, Suprasanna P, Srivastava S, D’Souza SF (2010b) Thiourea mediated regulation in the expression profile of aquaporins and its impact on water homeostasis under salinity stress in Brassica juncea roots. Plant Sci 178(6):517–522.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Su J, Hirji R, Zhang L, He C, Selvaraj G, Wu R (2006) Evaluation of the stress-inducible production of choline oxidase in transgenic rice as a strategy for producing the stress-protectant glycine betaine. J Exp Bot 57(5):1129–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Sulpice R, Tsukaya H, Nonaka H, Mustardy L, Chen THH, Murata N (2003) Enhanced formation of flowers in salt-stressed Arabidopsis after genetic engineering of the synthesis of glycine betaine. Plant J 36(2):165–176.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01873.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Sultana N, Ikeda T, Mitsui T (2000) GA3 and proline promote germination of wheat seeds by stimulating α-Amylase at unfavorable temperatures. Plant Prod Sci 3(3):232–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sun Y-Y, Sun Y-J, Wang M-T, Li X-Y, Guo X, Hu R, Ma J (2010) Effects of seed priming on germination and seedling growth under water stress in rice. Acta Agron Sin 36(11):1931–1940.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-2780(09)60085-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sung JM, Chiu KY (1995) Hydration effect on seedling emergence strength of watermelon seeds differing in ploidy. Plant Sci 110(1):21–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(95)04183-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Szabados L, Savouré A (2010) Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15(2):89–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2009.11.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Tavili A, Zare S, Enayati Z (2009) Hydropriming, ascorbic and salicylic acid influence on germination of agropyron elongation host. Seeds under salt stressGoogle Scholar
  201. Tavili A, Zare S, Moosavi SA, Enayati A (2011) Effects of seed priming on germination characteristics of Bromus species under salt and drought conditions. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 10(2):163–168Google Scholar
  202. Thakur P, Kumar S, Malik JA, Berger JD, Nayyar H (2010) Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 67(3):429–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Thomas U, Varughese K, Thomas A, Sadanandan S (2000) Seed priming for increased vigour, viability and productivity of upland rice. Leisa India 4:14Google Scholar
  204. Tiryaki I, Korkmaz A, Nas M, Ozbay N (2005) Priming combined with plant growth regulators promotes germination and emergence of dormant Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds. Seed Sci Technol 33(3):571–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Todorov D, Karanov E, Smith A, Hall M (2003) Chlorophyllase activity and chlorophyll content in wild and mutant plants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biol Plant 46(1):125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Valko M, Morris H, Cronin M (2005) Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12(10):1161–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Verbruggen N, Hermans C (2008) Proline accumulation in plants: a review. Amino Acids 35(4):753–759.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0061-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Viehweger K (2014) How plants cope with heavy metals. Bot Stud 55(1):35PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Vollenweider P, Günthardt-Goerg MS (2005) Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage. Environ Pollut 137(3):455–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wahid A, Rasul E, Rao R, Iqbal R (2005) Photosynthesis in leaf, stem, flower and fruit. Handb Photosynth 2:479–497Google Scholar
  211. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007a) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61(3):199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wahid A, Perveen M, Gelani S, Basra SMA (2007b) Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 improves salt tolerance of wheat seedlings by alleviation of oxidative damage and expression of stress proteins. J Plant Physiol 164(3):283–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2006.01.005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Wong HL, Sakamoto T, Kawasaki T, Umemura K, Shimamoto K (2004) Down-regulation of metallothionein, a reactive oxygen scavenger, by the small GTPase OsRac1 in rice. Plant Physiol 135(3):1447–1456PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Xiong L, Zhu JK (2002) Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to osmotic stress. Plant Cell Environ 25(2):131–139.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00782.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Xu J, Yin H, Li X (2009) Protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity in micropropagated hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. Plant Cell Rep 28(2):325–333.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-008-0643-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Xu S, Hu J, Li Y, Ma W, Zheng Y, Zhu S (2011) Chilling tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum induced by seed priming with putrescine. Plant Growth Regul 63(3):279–290.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-010-9528-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Yadav PV, Kumari M, Ahmed Z (2011) Seed priming mediated germination improvement and tolerance to subsequent exposure to cold and salt stress in capsicum. Res J Seed Sci 4(3):125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Yagmur M, Kaydan D (2008) Alleviation of osmotic stress of water and salt in germination and seedling growth of triticale with seed priming treatments. Afr J Biotechnol 7(13):2156–2162Google Scholar
  219. Yancey PH (1994) Compatible and counteracting solutes. In: Cellular and molecular physiology of cell volume regulation, pp 81–109Google Scholar
  220. Yeh Y, Chiu K, Chen C, Sung J (2005) Partial vacuum extends the longevity of primed bitter gourd seeds by enhancing their anti-oxidative activities during storage. Sci Hortic 104(1):101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Zeid I, Shedeed Z (2006) Response of alfalfa to putrescine treatment under drought stress. Biol Plant 50(4):635–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zhang JX, Wang C, Yang CY, Wang JY, Chen L, Bao XM, Zhao YX, Zhang H, Liu J (2010) The role of Arabidopsis AtFes1A in cytosolic Hsp70 stability and abiotic stress tolerance. Plant J 62(4):539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Zhang Q, Rue K, Mueller J (2014) The effect of glycinebetaine priming on seed germination of six turfgrass species under drought, salinity, or temperature stress. Hortscience 49(11):1454–1460Google Scholar
  224. Zhou ZS, Guo K, Elbaz AA, Yang ZM (2009) Salicylic acid alleviates mercury toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in roots of Medicago sativa. Environ Exp Bot 65(1):27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2008.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Arslan Ashraf
    • 1
  • Ali Akbar
    • 1
  • Sajjad Hassan Askari
    • 1
  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 1
  • Rizwan Rasheed
    • 1
  • Iqbal Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations