Salinity Stress Alleviation by Organic and Inorganic Fertilization

  • Nusrat Jabeen


Salinity is one of the major environmental stresses that limit plant growth and decreases crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land worldwide. The salinity reduced growth, yield, biomass, and quality of crop plants. These adverse effects are due to nutritional disorder induced by salinity which effects on the uptake, transport, and partitioning of nutrients within the plant. It is a need and demand of a time to develop an effective nutrient management package through different resources for the crops to promote growth, quality, and productivity under salt stress. This chapter reviews how to improve the nutritional status of the crop to enhance plant performance grown under salinity stress through different approaches. These different approaches include the use of organic fertilizer as soil amendments and the provision of inorganic fertilizer through foliar spray. Their beneficial effects are emphasized for the alleviation of salt stress on plant growth and productivity. These approaches could help to extend the threshold value of the crop grown in the soil which is considered nonproductive for cultivation due to higher levels of salinity.


Abiotic stress Nutrient use efficiency Organic agriculture Plant nutrients Soil fertility 


  1. Abd El-Baki GK, Siefrt ZF, Man HM, Weiner H, Kaldenhoff R, Kaiser WM (2000) Nitrate reductase in Zea mays L. under salinity. Plant Cell Environ 23:515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Ati AA, Eisa SS (2015) Response of barley grown under saline condition to some fertilization treatments. Ann Agric Sci 60:413–421Google Scholar
  3. Abou El-Magd MM, Zaki MF, Abou-Hussein SD (2008) Effect of organic manure and different levels of saline irrigation water on growth, green yield and chemical content of sweet fennel. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2:90–98Google Scholar
  4. Abou El-nour EAA (2002) Can supplemented potassium foliar feeding reduce the recommended soil potassium. Pak J Biol Sci 5:259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abou El-Nour EAA, El-Fouly MM (2006) Modern methods for counteracting salinity stress: a review. The 2nd International Conf. on Water Resources & Arid EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  6. Abusuwar AO (2017) Performance of Clitoria grown in stressed environment as affected by compost of organic and inorganic nutrients. Cogent Food Agric 3:1303908Google Scholar
  7. Abusuwar AO, El Zilal H (2010) Effect of chicken manure on yield, quality and HCN concentration of two forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars. Agric Biol J N Am 1:27–31Google Scholar
  8. Agastian P, Kingsley SJ, Vivekanandan M (2000) Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthesis 38:287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad R, Jabeen R (2005) Foliar spray of mineral elements antagonistic to sodium- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plant growing under saline conditions. Pak J Bot 37:913–920Google Scholar
  10. Ahmad R, Jabeen N (2009) Demonstration of growth improvement in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by the use of organic fertilizers under saline conditions. Pak J Bot 41:1373–1384Google Scholar
  11. Ahmad R, Azeem M, Ahmed N (2009) Productivity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by amendment of vermicompost and biogas slurry in saline soils. Pak J Bot 41:3107–3116Google Scholar
  12. Akbarimoghaddam H, Galavi M, Ghanbari A, Panjehken N (2011) Salinity effects on seed germination and seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars. Trakia J Sci 9:43–50Google Scholar
  13. Akhtar J, Ahmad R, Ashraf MY, Tanveer A, Waraich EA, Oraby H (2013) Influence of exogenous application of salicylic acid on salt-stressed mungbean (Vigna radiata): growth and nitrogen metabolism. Pak J Bot 45:119–125Google Scholar
  14. Akram NA, Ashraf M (2011) Pattern of accumulation of inorganic elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants subjected to salt stress and exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Pak J Bot 43:52130Google Scholar
  15. Akram MS, Athar HR, Ashraf M (2007) Improving growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by foliar application of potassium hydroxide (KOH) under salt stress. Pak J Bot 39:2223–2230Google Scholar
  16. Akram MS, Ashraf M, Shahbaz M, Akram NA (2009) Role of foliar applied potassium from different sources on physio-biochemical attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under NaCl stress. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172:88493Google Scholar
  17. Albassam BA (2001) Effect of nitrate nutrition on growth and nitrogen assimilation of pearl millet exposed to sodium chloride. J Plant Nutr 24:1325–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Al-Erwy AS, Al-Toukhy A, Bafeel SO (2016) Effect of chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates and minerals of wheat (Triticum aestivum. L.) irrigated with sea water. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci 3:296–310Google Scholar
  19. Alpaslan M, Inal A, Gunes A, Cikili Y, Ozcan H (1999) Effect of zinc treatment on the alleviation of sodium and chloride injury in tomato [(Lycopersicum esculentum L.) Mill. Cv. Late] grown under salinity. Turk J Bot 23:1–6Google Scholar
  20. Álvarez S, Sánchez-Blanco MJ (2014) Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus. Plant Biol J 16:757–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Amanullah MM (2008) Response of lowland rice varieties to reclamation practices in coastal saline soils. J Appl Sci Res 4:871–874Google Scholar
  22. Amini F, Ehsanpour AA (2005) Soluble proteins, proline, carbohydrates and Na+/K+ changes in two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Cultivars under in vitro salt stress. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4:204–208Google Scholar
  23. Asik BB, Turan MA, Celik H, Katkat AV (2009) Effects of humic substances on plant growth and mineral nutrients uptake of wheat (Triticum durum cv Salihli) under conditions of salinity. Asian J Crop Sci 1:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Azeem M, Ahmad R (2011) Foliar application of some essential minerals on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plant grown under two different salinity regimes. Pak J Bot 43:1513–1520Google Scholar
  25. Babaeian M, Piri I, Tavassoli A, Esmaeilian Y, Gholami H (2011) Effect of water stress and micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Mn) on chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf chlorophyll content and sunflower nutrient uptake in Sistan region. Afr J Agric Res 6:3526–3531Google Scholar
  26. Babar S, Siddiqi EH, Hussain I, Hayat Bhatti K, Rasheed R (2014) Mitigating the effects of salinity by foliar application of salicylic acid in fenugreek. Phys J 14:1–6Google Scholar
  27. Bano A, Fatima M (2009) Salt tolerance in Zea mays (L.) following inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas. Biol Fertil Soils 45:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bly AG, Woodard HJ (2003) Foliar nitrogen application timing on grain yield and protein concentration of hard red winter and spring wheat. Agron J 95:335–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Botía P, Navarro JM, Cerdá, Martinez V (2005) Yield and fruit quality of two melon cultivars irrigated with saline water at different stages of development. Eur J Agron 23:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brunetti G, Senesi N, Plaza C (2007) Effects of amendment with treated and untreated olive oil mill wastewaters on soil properties, soil humic substances and wheat yield. Geoderma 138:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bybordi A, Mamedov G (2010) Evaluation of application methods efficiency of zinc and iron for Canola (Brassica napus L.) Not Sci Biol 2:94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chandra S, Joshi HC, Pathak H, Jain MC, Kalra N (2002) Effect of potassium salts and distillery effluent on carbon mineralization in soil. Bioresour Technol 83:255–257PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Cha-um S, Kirdmanee C (2011) Remediation of salt-affected soil by the addition of organic matter—an investigation into improving glutinous rice productivity. Sci Agric 68:406–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cha-um S, Siringam K, Juntawong N, Kirdmanee C (2010) Water relations, pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities and growth improvement in salt stressed rice plants treated with exogenous potassium nitrate application. Int J Plant Prod 4:187–198Google Scholar
  35. Cha-um S, Pokasombat Y, Kirdmanee C (2011) Remediation of salt-affected soil by gypsum and farmyard manure–importance for the production of Jasmine rice. Aust J Crop Sci 4:458–465Google Scholar
  36. Cheong MS, Yun DJ (2007) Salt-stress signalling. J Plant Biol 50:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chinnusamy V, Zhu J, Zhu JK (2006) Gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants. Physiol Plant 126:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Darwish DS, El-Gharreib EG, El-Hawary MA, Rafft OA (2002) Effect of some macro and micronutrients application on peanut production in a saline soil in El-Faiyum governorate. Egypt J App Sci 17:17–32Google Scholar
  39. Dawood MG, Taie HAA, Nassar RMA, Abdelhamid MT, Schmidhalter U (2014) The changes induced in the physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics of Vicia faba by the exogenous application of proline under seawater stress. S Afr J Bot 93:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Debouba M, Gouia H, Suzuki A, Ghorbel MH (2006) NaCl stress effects on enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation pathway in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings. J Plant Physiol 163:1247–1258PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Debouba M, Maâroufi-Dghimi H, Suzuki A, Ghorbel MH, Gouia H (2007) Changes in growth and activity of enzymes involved in nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation in tomato seedlings in response to NaCl stress. Ann Bot 99:1143–1151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Diacono M, Montemurro F (2010) Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:401–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diacono M, Montemurro F (2015) Effectiveness of organic wastes as fertilizers and amendments in salt-affected soils. A review. Agriculture 5:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ebert G, Eberle J, Ali-Dinar H, Ludders P (2002) Ameliorating effects of Ca(NO3 )2 on growth, mineral uptake and photosynthesis of NaCl-stressed guava seedlings (Psidium guajava L.) Sci Hortic 93:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eichert T, Burkhardt J (2001) Quantification of stomatal uptake of ionic solutes using a new model system. J Exp Bot 52:771–781PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Eisa S, Hussin S, Geissler N, Koyro HW (2012) Effect of NaCl salinity on water relations, photosynthesis and chemical composition of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) as a potential cash crop halophyte. AJCS 6:357–368Google Scholar
  47. El-Fouly MM, Abou El-Nour EAA (1998) Registration and use of foliar fertilizers in Egypt. In: El-Flouly MM, Abdalla FE, Abdel-Maguid AA (eds) Proc. sym. foliar fertilization: a technique to improve production and decrease pollution 10–14 Dec., 1995. Cairo. NRC, Cario, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  48. El-Fouly MM, Mobarak ZM, Salama ZA (2002) Micronutrient foliar application increases salt tolerance of tomato seedlings. Acta Hortic 573:377–385Google Scholar
  49. El-Fouly MM, Mobarak ZM, Salama ZA (2011) Micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn) foliar spray for increasing salinity tolerance in wheat Triticum aestivum L. African J Plant Sci 5:314–322Google Scholar
  50. Elhindi KM, El-Hendawy S, Abdel-Salam E, Schmidhalter U, Rehman S, Hassan AA (2016) A Foliar application of potassium nitrate effects the growth and photosynthesis in coriander (Coriander sativum L.) plants under salinity. Prog Nutr 18:63–73Google Scholar
  51. Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot 104:1263–1280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Li YC (2008) The role of nutrient efficient plants in improving crop yields in the twenty first century. J Plant Nutr 31:1121–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fageria NK, Barbosa-Filho MP, Moreira A, Guimaraes CM (2009) Foliar fertilization of crop plants. J Plant Nutr 32:1044–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. FAO (2005) Food security in the context of economic and trade policy reforms: insights from country experiences. CCP 05/11. RomeGoogle Scholar
  55. Ferrario MS, Valadier MH, Foyer C (1998) Over expression of nitrate reductase in tobacco delays drought induced decreases in nitrate reductase activity and mRNA. Plant Physiol 117:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Franke W (1967) Mechanisms of foliar penetration of solutions. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 18:281–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gamble PE, Emino E (1987) Morphological and anatomical characterization of leaf burn in corn induced from foliar applied nitrogen. Agron J 79:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Garnett TP, Graham RD (2005) Distribution and remobilization of iron and copper in wheat. Ann Bot 95:817–826PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ghafoor A, Murtaza G, Ahmad B, Boers TM (2008) Evaluation of amelioration treatments and economic aspects of using salinesodic water for rice and wheat production on salt-affected soils under arid land conditions. Irrig Drain 57:424–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Girma K, Martin KL, Freeman KW, Mosali J, Teal RK, Raun WR, Moges SM, Arnall DB (2007) Determination of optimum rate and growth for foliar applied phosphorus in corn. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:1137–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gobarah ME, Mohamed MH, Tawfik MM (2006) Effect of phosphorus fertilizer and foliar spraying with zinc on growth, yield and quality of groundnut under reclaimed Sandy soils. J Appl Sci Res 2:491–496Google Scholar
  62. Gulzar S, Khan MA, Ungar IA (2003) Salt tolerance of a coastal salt marsh grass. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:2595–2605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hanay A, Büyüksönmez F, Kiziloglu FM, Canbolat MY (2004) Reclamation of saline-sodic soils with gypsum and MSW compost. Comput Sci Utiliz 12:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hao X, Chang C (2003) Does long-term heavy cattle manure application increase salinity of a clay loam soil in semi-arid southern Alberta? Agric Ecosyst Environ 94:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hasaneen MNA, Younis ME, El-Bialy DMA (2008) Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions: further studies supporting nullification of harmful effects of salinity in lettuce plants by urea treatment. Plant Soil Environ 54:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haytova D (2013) A review of foliar fertilization of some vegetables crops. Ann Rev Res Biol 3:455–465Google Scholar
  67. Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (2005) Drought and salinity: a comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hussain N, Hassan G, Arshadullah M, Mujeeb F (2001) Evaluation of amendments for the improvement of physical properties of sodic soil. Int J Agric Biol 3:319–322Google Scholar
  69. Hussein MM, Alva AK (2014) Effects of zinc and ascorbic acid application on the growth and photosynthetic pigments of millet plants grown under different salinity. Agric Sci 5:1253–1260Google Scholar
  70. Hussein MM, El-Faham SY, Alva AK (2012) Pepper plants growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, and total phenols as affected by foliar application of potassium under different salinity irrigation water. Agric Sci 3:241–248Google Scholar
  71. Jabeen N (2010) Comparative study on growth of a conventional (sunflower) and a non conventional (safflower), salt tolerant oil yielding plants under saline conditions: PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Pakistan. 2010Google Scholar
  72. Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2011a) Foliar application of potassium nitrate affects the growth and nitrate reductase activity in sunflower and safflower leaves under salinity. Not Bot Hortic Agrobot 39:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2011b) Effect of foliar-applied boron and manganese on growth and biochemical activities in sunflower under saline conditions. Pak J Bot 43(2):1271–1282Google Scholar
  74. Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2012a) Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress. Pak J Bot 44:1341–1345Google Scholar
  75. Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2012b) Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions. Pak J Bot 44:563–572Google Scholar
  76. Jabeen R, Ahmad R (2012c) Provision of essential minerals through foliar sprays, water quality, soil and managing irrigation of crops. In: Lee TS (ed) ISBN: 978-953-51-0426-1Google Scholar
  77. Jabeen R, Ahmad R (2015) Some growth promoting essential mineral elements alleviates the salinity effect on nitrate reductase and hill reaction activities in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv. “CIM 496”. J Plant Sci 3(2):54–58Google Scholar
  78. Jabeen N, Ahmad R (2017) Growth response and nitrogen metabolism of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to vermicompost and biogas slurry under salinity stress. J Plant Nutr 40:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jabeen N, Ahmad R, Sultana R, Saleem R, Ambrat (2013) Investigations on foliar spray of boron and manganese on oil content and concentrations of fatty acids in seeds of sunflower plant raised through saline water irrigation. J Plant Nutr 36:1001–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jamil A, Riaz S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2011) Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30:435–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaddour R, Nasri N, M’rah S, Berthomieu P, Lachaal M (2009) Comparative effect of potassium on K and Na uptake and transport in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana during salinity stress. C R Biol 332:784–794PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Kahlown MA, Azam M (2003) Effect of saline drainage effluent on soil health and crop yield. Agric Water Manag 62:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kanan S (1980) Mechanisms of foliar uptake of plant nutrients: accomplishments and prospects. J Plant Nutr 2:717735Google Scholar
  84. Kaya C, Higgs D (2003) Supplementary potassium nitrate improves salt tolerance in bell pepper plants. J Plant Nutr 26:1367–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kaya C, Tuna AL, Ashraf M, Altunlu H (2007) Improved salt tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) by the addition of proline and potassium nitrate. Environ Exp Bot 60:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Keren R (2000) Salinity. In: Sumner ME (ed) Handbook of soil science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp G3–G25Google Scholar
  87. Khaled H, Fawy HA (2011) Effect of different levels of humic acids on the nutrient content, plant growth, and soil properties under conditions of salinity. Soil Water Res 6:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Khan MA (2001) Experimental assessment of salinity tolerance of Ceriops tagal seedlings and saplings from the Indus delta. Pak Aquat Bot 70:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Khan MA, Ungar IA, Showalter AM (2000) Effects of salinity on growth, water relations and ions accumulation of the subtropical perennial halophyte Atriplex griffthii var. stocksii. Ann Bot 85:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lakhdar A, Rabhi M, Ghnaya T, Montemurro F, Jedidi N, Abdelly C (2009) Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. J Hazard Mater 171:29–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Liang Y, Yang Y, Yang C, Shen Q, Zhou J, Yang L (2003) Soil enzymatic activity and growth of rice and barley as influenced by organic matter in an anthropogenic soil. Geoderma 115:149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Liang Y, Nikolic M, Peng Y, Chen W, Jiang Y (2005) Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1185–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Li-Xian Y, Guo-Liang L, Shi-Hua T, Gavin S, Zhao-Huan H (2007) Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application. Sci Total Environ 383:106–114PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Machado RMA, Serralheiro RP (2017) Soil salinity: effect on vegetable crop growth. Management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization, a review. Horticulture 3:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mahdy AM (2011) Comparative effects of different soil amendments on amelioration of saline-sodic soils. Soil Water Res 6:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, pp 559–579Google Scholar
  97. Mazhar AAM, Nahed G, Abdel-Aziz NG, Shedeed SI, Zaghloul SM (2011) Effect of Nile compost application on growth and chemical constituents of Jatropha curcas grown under different salinity levels of diluted sea water. Aust J Basic App Sci 5:967–974Google Scholar
  98. Melero S, Madejón E, Ruiz JC, Herencia JF (2007) Chemical and biochemical properties of a clay soil under dryland agriculture system as affected by organic fertilization. Eur J Agron 26:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Meloni DA, Gulotta MR, Martinez CA, Oliva MA (2004) The effects of salt stress on growth, nitrate reduction, and proline and glycinebetain accumulation in Prosopis alba. Braz J Plant Physiol 16:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, pp 305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mezni M, Albouchi A, Bizid E, Hamza M (2010) Minerals uptake, organic osmotica contents and water balance in Alfalfa under salt stress. J Phytology 2:01–12Google Scholar
  102. Mitchell JP, Shennan C, Singer MJ, Peters DW, Miller RO, Prichard T, Grattan SR, Rhoades JD, May DM, Munk DS (2000) Impacts of gypsum and winter cover crops on soil physical properties and crop productivity when irrigated with saline water. Agric Water Manag 45:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Moussa HR (2004) Amelioration of salinity-induced metabolic changes in soybean by weed exudates. Int J Agric Biol 6:499–503Google Scholar
  104. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Murtaza G, Ghafoor A, Owens G, Qadir M, Kahlon UZ (2009) Environmental and economic benefits of saline-sodic soil reclamation using low-quality water and soil amendments in conjunction with a rice-wheat cropping system. J Agron Crop Sci 195:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nawaz K, Ashraf M (2007) Improvement in salt tolerance of maize by exogenous application of glycinebetaine: growth and water relations. Pak J Bot 39:1647–1653Google Scholar
  109. Netondo GW, Onyango JC, Beck E (2004) Sorghum and salinity: II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sci 44:806–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Oo AN, Iwai CB, Saenjan P (2013) Soil properties and maize growth in saline and nonsaline soils using cassava-industrial waste compost and vermicompost with or without earthworms. Land Degrad Dev 26:300–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Papadakis IE, Sotiropoulos TE, Therios IN (2007) Mobility of iron and manganese within two citrus genotypes after foliar applications of iron sulfate and manganese. J Plant Nutr 30:1385–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Parida AK, Das AB (2004) Effects of NaCl stress on nitrogen and phosphorous metabolism in a true mangrove Bruguiera parviflora grown under hydroponic culture. J Plant Physiol 161:921–928PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Parida A, Das AB, Das P (2002) NaCl stress causes changes in photosynthetic pigments, proteins and other metabolic components in the leaves of a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, in hydroponic cultures. J Plant Biol 45:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto biochemical responses of plants. Plant Soil J 54:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Paul D (2012) Osmotic stress adaptations in rhizobacteria. J Basic Microbiol 52:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Porcel, Aroca, Ruiz-Lozano J (2012) Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a review. Agronomy for sustainable development. Springer Verlag (Germany) 32:181–200Google Scholar
  118. Qadir M, Oster JD (2004) Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Sci Total Environ 323:1–19PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Rady AA (2012) A novel organo-mineral fertilizer can mitigate salinity stress effects for tomato production on reclaimed saline soil. S Afr J Bot 81:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rady MM, Semida WM, Hemida KA, Abdelhamid MT (2016) The effect of compost on growth and yield of Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown under saline soil. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 5:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rahman IU, Afzal A, Iqbal Z, Shah AH, Khan MA, Ijaz F, Sohail UA, Nisar A, Zainab R, Manan S (2015) Review of foliar feeding in various vegetables and cereal crops boosting growth and yield attributes. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 15(1):74–77Google Scholar
  122. Rao DLN, Pathak H (1996) Ameliorative influence of organic matter on biological activity of salt-affected soils. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 10:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rashad RT, Hussien RA (2014) A comparison study on the effect of some growth regulators on the nutrients content of maize plant under salinity conditions. Ann Agric Sci 59(1):89–94Google Scholar
  124. Rietz DN, Haynes RJ (2003) Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rizk WM, Abdo FA (2001) The response of two mung bean cultivars to zinc, manganese, boron II. Yield and chemical composition of seeds. Bull Fac Agric Cairo Univ 52(3):467–477Google Scholar
  126. Romero-Aranda R, Soria T, Cuartero J (2001) Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Sci 160:265–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Ruiz JM, Moreno DA, Villora G, Olivares J, Garcia PC, Hernandez J, Romero L (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism and yield of capsicum plant (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Lamuyo) in response to increases in NK fertilization. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:2345–2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sadak SHM, Abdelhamid MT, Schmidhalter U (2015) Effect of foliar application of aminoacids on plant yield and physiological parameters in bean plants irrigated with seawater. Acta Biol Colomb 20(1):141–152Google Scholar
  129. Sage RF, Reid CD (1994) Photosynthetic response mechanisms to environmental change in C3 plants. In: Wilkinson RE (ed) Plant-environment interactions. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 413–499Google Scholar
  130. Sairam RK, Tyagi A (2004) Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Curr Sci J 86(3):407–421Google Scholar
  131. Shaheen S, Naseer S, Ashraf M, Akram NA (2013) Salt stress affects water relations, photosynthesis, and oxidative defense mechanisms in Solanum melongena L. J Plant Interact 8:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sharma BR, Minhas PS (2005) Strategies for managing saline/alkali waters for sustainable agricultural production in South Asia. Agric Water Manag 78:136–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation, a review. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:123–131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Siddiqi EH, Ashraf M (2008) Can leaf water relation parameters be used as selection criteria for salt tolerance in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Pak J Bot 40(1):221–228Google Scholar
  135. Singh KN, Chatrath R (2001) Salinity tolerance. In: Reynolds MP, Monasterio JIO, McNab A (eds) Application of physiology in wheat breeding. CIMMYT, Mexico, pp 101–110Google Scholar
  136. Singh P, Singh N, Sharma KD, Kuhad MS (2010) Plant water relations and osmotic adjustment in Brassica species under salinity stress. J Am Sci 6:6Google Scholar
  137. Sumner M (2000) Handbook of soil science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 2148Google Scholar
  138. Suthar S (2009) Impact of vermicompost and composted farmyard manure on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) field crop. Int J Plant Prod 3:27–38Google Scholar
  139. Tabatabaei SJ (2006) Effect of salinity and N on growth, photosynthesis and N status of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. Sci Hortic 108:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tabatabaei SJ, Fakhrzad F (2008) Foliar and soil application of potassium nitrate affects the tolerance of salinity and canopy growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var ‘Boulevard’). Am J Agric Biol Sci 3:544–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tejada M, Garcia C, Gonzalez JL, Hernandez MT (2006) Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation: influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1413–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na tolerance and Na transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thalooth AT, Badr NM, Mohamed MH (2005) Effect of foliar spraying with Zn and different levels of phosphatic fertilizer on growth and yield of sunflower plants grown under saline condition. Egypt J Agron 27:11–22Google Scholar
  144. Vysotskaya L, Hedley PE, Sharipova G, Veselov D, Kudoyarova G, Morris J, Jones HG (2010) Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance. AoB Plants.
  145. Walker DJ, Bernal PM (2008) The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil. Bioresour Technol 99:396–403PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Walpola BC, Arunakumara KKIU (2010) Effect of salt stress on decomposition of organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in animal manure amended soils. J Agric Sci 5:9–18Google Scholar
  147. Wang Y, Nil N (2000) Changes in chlorophyll, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase–oxygenase, glycine betaine content, photosynthesis and transpiration in Amaranthus tricolor leaves during salt stress. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 75:623–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218:1–14PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wang L, Sun X, Li S, Zhang T, Zhang W, Zhai P (2014) Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in North China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth. PLoS One 9:e89185PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Weisanya W, Sohrabi Y, Heidari G, Siosemardeh A, Badakhshan H (2014) Effects of zinc application on growth, absorption and distribution of mineral nutrients under salinity stress in soybean (Glycine max L.) J Plant Nutr 37:2255–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Yildirim E, Karlidag H, Turan M (2009) Mitigation of salt stress in strawberry by foliar K, Ca and Mg nutrient supply. Plant Soil Environ 55(5):213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zahir ZA, Munir A, Asghar HN, Shaharoona B, Arshad M (2008) Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:958–963PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Zaki SS (2016) Effect of compost and nitrogen fertilization on yield and nutrients uptake of Rice crop under saline soil. Mod Chem Appl 4:183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhang Y, Hu X-H, Shi Y, Zou ZR, Yan F, Zhao YY, Zhang H, Zhao JZ (2013) Beneficial role of exogenous spermidine on nitrogen metabolism in tomato seedlings exposed to saline-alkaline stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 138:38–49Google Scholar
  155. Zheng Y, Jia A, Ning T, Xu J, Li Z, Jiang G (2008) Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. J Plant Physiol 165:1455–1465PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Bol 53:247–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nusrat Jabeen
    • 1
  1. 1.Biosaline Laboratory, Department of BotanyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations