Ion Homeostasis and Antioxidant Defense Toward Salt Tolerance in Plants

  • Pedro García-Caparrós
  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
  • María Teresa Lao


The increase of salinity in the soil represents a great threat at worldwide level since it reduces the plant growth and the productivity. The main problems of salinity are related to the osmotic effect and specific ions. The changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration are supplied from the apoplast or internal stores like mitochondria or vacuoles, and they educe several purposes at cellular levels such as signal transduction in plant-defense responses against stresses. Even though the Cl movement response to salt stress is less investigated, it is well known that their entrance through plasma membrane is related with a raising external Cl concentration and the relocation of Cl from the cytoplasm into the vacuole of root cells ends with delimitated concentrations. Due to the chemical uniformity between Na+ and K+, there is a high competence between them for binding sites in different physiological processes such as enzymatic reactions, protein synthesis, and ribosome functions; therefore, the cellular maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis is essential to overcome the salinity in plants. All of these responses are triggered by plants to maintain the ion homeostasis because it is an essential process for growth during salt stress. Also, plant cells are responsible for the reduction of toxic ions and the accumulation of crucial ions to maintain the ion homeostasis. Antioxidant defense system of plants is regarded as one of the vital mechanisms of salt stress tolerance by which plants cope with oxidative stress. Several recent studies indicated that both ion homeostasis and antioxidant defense systems are closely associated with salt tolerance. This review will be focused on current progress of nutrient homeostasis and antioxidant defense in plants under increasing saline conditions.


Antioxidant defense Ion homeostasis Reactive oxygen species Salinity 



The author acknowledges some information overlaps between Table 18.5 of this chapter and his previously published chapter as cited as Hasanuzzaman et al. (2013) to develop the current chapter in its proper sequence. We thank Mr. Sayed Mohammad Mohsin, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, for his critical reading and formatting of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro García-Caparrós
    • 1
  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 2
  • María Teresa Lao
    • 1
  1. 1.Higher Engineering School, Department of AgronomyUniversity of Almeria, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence ceiA3AlmeríaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh

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