Advertisement

Biological Functions, Uptake and Transport of Essential Nutrients in Relation to Plant Growth

  • K. S. Karthika
  • I. Rashmi
  • M. S. Parvathi
Chapter

Abstract

Plant nutrition takes care of the interrelationship between soil nutrients and plant growth. The role of nutrients in plant growth and physiology is dealt in this chapter in its maximum possible extent including the details on essential nutrients, their physiological roles, uptake and assimilation, nutritional disorders, the availability of nutrients in soil and their movement to plant roots and availability to plants by different modes of absorption. Every nutrient plays an indispensable role in carrying out physiological functions of plants enabling proper plant growth, the deficiency of which leads to particular disorders. Some nutrients are needed in larger quantities and some smaller but still essential for a plant to complete its life cycle. The primary roles of major nutrients in plant growth and physiology are widely studied and well documented. The functions of beneficial elements in plant nutrition may be investigated further. Soil, a complex substrate, acts as a storehouse of nutrients and water for plant growth. Plants have extensive root system for the nutrient uptake from the soil. However, the availability of all these nutrients in soil may fluctuate depending on so many factors. From the soil, nutrients move towards the roots by following certain mechanisms of transport, which include mass flow, diffusion and root interception. The nutrients thus reaching the roots are absorbed by plants either actively by spending energy or passively by no involvement of energy. Hence, a better understanding on plant nutrition would help to enhance crop productivity and nutritional value for the burgeoning world population.

Keywords

Mineral nutrients Physiological functions Plant growth Deficiency Toxicity Growth laws 

References

  1. Agarwala SC, Sharma CP (1976) Plant nutrients – their functions and uptake. In: Kanwar JS (ed) Soil fertility – theory and practice. I.C.A.R, New Delhi, pp 7–64Google Scholar
  2. Amtmann A, Armengaud P (2009) Effects of N, P, K and S on metabolism: new knowledge gained from multi-level analysis. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreini C, Banci L, Rosato A (2006) Zinc through the three domains of life. J Proteome Res 5:3173–3178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnon DI, Stout PR (1939) An essentiality of certain elements in minute quantity for plants with special reference to copper. Plant Physiol 14:371–375PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Yosef B, Kafkafi U, Bresler E (1972) Uptake of phosphorus by plants growing under field conditions. I. Theoretical model and experimental determination of its parameters. Soil Sci 36:783–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bray RH (1938) New concepts on the chemistry of soil fertility. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 2:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bray RH (1954) A nutrient mobility concept of soil-plant relationships. Soil Sci 78:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broschat TK (2009) Palm nutrition and fertilisation. Hort Tech 19:690–694Google Scholar
  9. Broschat TK (2014a) Iron deficiency in palms. N.d. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web 9 May 2014
  10. Broschat TK (2014b) Manganese deficiency in palms N.d. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Web 25 Apr 2017
  11. Brown PH (2006) Nickel. In: Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (eds) Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC Press, Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen CH, Lewin J (1969) Silicon as a nutrient element for Equisetum arvense. Can J Bot 47:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarkson DT (1985) Factors affecting mineral nutrient acquisition by plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 36:77–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colmer TD, Bloom AJ (1998) A comparison of net NH4 + and NO3 fluxes along roots of rice and maize. Plant Cell Environ 21:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawson C (2014) Potassium, a nutrient essential for life, IPNI.  https://doi.org/10.3235/978-3-905887-11-2
  16. Dobermann A, Fairhurst T (2000) Rice: nutrient disorders & nutrient management, Handbook series. Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI), Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC) and International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, p 191Google Scholar
  17. Evans HJ, Sorger GJ (1966) Role of mineral elements with emphasis on the univalent cations. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 17:47–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fredeen AL, Rao IM, Terry N (1989) Influence of phosphorus nutrition on growth and carbon partitioning of Glycine max. Plant Physiol 39:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hansch R, Mendel RR (2009) Physiological functions of mineral macronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hebbern CA, Laursen KH, Ladegaard AH, Schmidt SB, Pedas P, Bruhn D, Schjoerring JK, Wulfsohn D, Husted S (2009) Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeumvulgare). Physiol Plant 135:307–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heuwinkel H, Kirkby EA, Le Bot J, Marschner H (1992) Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants. J Plant Nutr 15:549–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hewitt EJ, Bolle-Jones EW (1952a) Molybdenum as a plant nutrient. II. The effects of molybdenum deficiency on some horticultural and agricultural crop plants in sand culture. J Horticult Sci 27:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hewitt EJ, Bolle-Jones EW (1952b) Molybdenum as a plant nutrient. I. The influence of molybdenum on the growth of some Brassica crops in sand culture. J Horticult Sci 27:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jamal A, Moon YS, Abdin MZ (2010) Sulphur -a general overview and interaction with nitrogen. Aust J Crop Sci 4(7):523–529Google Scholar
  25. Jeschke WD, Kirkby EA, Peuke AD, Pate JS, Hartung W (1997) Effects of P deficiency on accumulation transport of nitrate and phosphate in intact plants of castor bean (Ricinus communis). J Exp Bot 48:75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kashirad A, Marschner H, Richter CH (1973) Absorption and translocation of 59Fe from various parts of the corn plant. Z Pflanzenernähr Bodenk 134:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelling KA (1999) Soil and applied boron In: Understanding plant nutrients. Cooperative extension publication A2522, University of Wisconsin-ExtensionGoogle Scholar
  28. Kusunoki M (2007) Mono-manganese mechanism of the photosystem II water splitting reaction by a unique Mn4Ca cluster. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:484–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu G, Simonne EH, Li Y, (2014) Nickel nutrition in plants. HS 1191 UF/IFAS extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
  30. Ma JF, Miyake Y, Takahashi E (2001) Chapter 2: silicon as a beneficial element for crop plants In: Studies in plant science 8:17–39Google Scholar
  31. Maathuis FJM (2009) Physiological functions of mineral macronutrients. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:250–258PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marschner H (ed) (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, Orlo, pp 313–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McAinsh MR, Pittman JK (2009) Shaping the calcium signature. New Phytol 181:275–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McCauley A, Jones C, Jacobsen J (2011) Plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms In: Nutrient management module 9, Montana State University ExtensionGoogle Scholar
  35. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (eds) (1987) Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute, Worblaufen-BernGoogle Scholar
  36. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2006) Principles of plant nutrition, 5th edn. Rashtriya Printers, Delhi, First Indian ReprintGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitscherlich EA (1909) Das Gesetz des Minimums and das Gesetz des abnehmenden Bodenestrages. LsndwirtschJahrb 38:537–552Google Scholar
  38. Nye PH, Tinker PB (1977) Solute movement in the soil-root system. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  39. Pilon-Smits EAH, Quinn CF, Tapken W, Malagoli M, Schiavon M (2009) Physiological functions of beneficial elements. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:267–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rattan RK (2015) Mineral nutrition of plants. In: Rattan RK, Katyal JC, Dwivedi BS, Sarkar AK, Bhattacharyya T, Tarafdar JC, Kukal SS (eds) Soil science: an introduction. Indian Soc Soil Sci, New Delhi, pp 499–539Google Scholar
  41. Rattan RK, Goswami NN (2009) Mineral nutrition of plants. In: Goswami NN, Rattan RK, Narayanasamy G, Das DK, Sanyal SK, Pal DK, Rao DLN (eds) Fundamentals of soil. Science Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 349–386Google Scholar
  42. Richmond KE, Sussman M (2003) Got silicon? The non-essential beneficial plant nutrient. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Salisbury F (1992) Plant physiology, plant physiology, 4th edn. Wadsworth, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  44. Sanders D, Brownlee C, Harper JF (1999) Communicating with calcium. Plant Cell 11(4):691–706PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Saqib M, Zorb C, Schubert S (2009) Silicon mediated improvement in the salt resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) results from increased sodium exclusion and resistance to oxidative stress. Funct Plant Biol 35:633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seregin IV, Kozhevnikova AD (2006) Physiological role of nickel and its toxic effects on higher plants. Russ J Plant Physiol 53(2):257–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharp RE, Hsiao TC, Silk WK (1990) Growth of the maize primary root at low water. Potentials. 2. Role of growth and deposition of hexose and potassium in osmotic adjustment. Plant Physiol 93:1337–1346PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Southern PJ (1969) Sulphur deficiency in coconuts. Oléagineux 24:211–220Google Scholar
  49. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Mineral nutrition In: Plant physiology, 3rd edn. Sinauer PublishersGoogle Scholar
  50. Taylor AR, Bloom AJ (1998) Ammonium, nitrate and proton fluxes along the maize root. Plant Cell Environ 21:1255–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD, Havlin JL (1997) Soil fertility and fertilizers, 5th edn, Second Indian Reprint. Prentice Hall of India Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  52. TNAU (2015) Plantation crops: coconut: physiological disorders. http://agritech.tnau.ac.in
  53. Uchida R (2000) Essential nutrients for plant growth-nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms. In: Silva JA, Uchida R (eds) Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils, approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, pp 31–55Google Scholar
  54. Wallace A, Wallace AG (1993) Limiting Factors, High Yields, Law of the Maximum. Hortl Reviews 15.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470650547.ch10
  55. Wood GAR, Lass RA (1985) Cocoa, 4th edn. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Karthika
    • 1
  • I. Rashmi
    • 2
  • M. S. Parvathi
    • 3
  1. 1.Research- National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional CentreIndian Council of AgriculturalBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Indian Council of Agricultural Research–Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Research CentreKotaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Crop PhysiologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan KendraBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations