The Mega Forces

  • Ashok Sethi


The Chinese consumer behavior is shaped by many diverse forces. Some of them are cultural and stem from the quintessence of being Chinese. Some of them pertain to the unique history of China—both its political history and the very short marketing history. However, some of these are even more powerful and all-encompassing than these and stem from the broader environment in which China and the Chinese consumers exist today. While there may be several such mega forces with a relevance for shaping the Chinese consumer, this book discusses the nature and the impact of four such mega forces:
  • The economy and especially the consumer economy

  • Urbanization

  • Changing demographics

  • Digital environment


  1. (2015, January 10). Retrieved from
  2. (2018, February 28). Retrieved from
  3. Amaro, S. (2017, June 28). China’s debt surpasses 300 percent of GDP, IIF says, raising doubts over Yellen’s crisis remarks. Retrieved from
  4. Bird, M. (2014, October 8). Retrieved from
  5. Callen, T. (2017, July 29). Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter. Retrieved from
  6. China cannot accelerate economic growth by increasing leverage, says ‘authoritative insider’. (2016, May 10). Retrieved from
  7. China overtakes Japan as world’s second-largest economy. (2011, February 14). Retrieved from
  8. China’s US$1.4 trillion ‘One Belt, One Road’ set to make bigger impact than US’ Marshall Plan to rebuild post-war Europe. (2016, August 6). Retrieved from
  9. China’s bullet trains make five billion trips. (2016, August 1). Retrieved from
  10. Dehua, C. (2018, January 24). Retrieved from
  11. Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP): World Bank. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  12. Kai, G. (2016, July 12). Retrieved from
  13. Kuo, Y., Walters, J., Gao, H., Wang, A., Yang, V., Yang, J., …Wan, H. (2015). The New China Playbook. Boston Consulting Group; AliResearch.Google Scholar
  14. Lannes, B., Ding, J., Kou, M., & Yu, J. (2017). China Shopper Report 2017. Bain & Company & Kantar Worldpanel.Google Scholar
  15. Nye, J. S. (2014, November 6). When will China overtake the US? Retrieved from
  16. Special Topic Paper: China’s Household Registration System: Sustained Reform Needed to Protect China’s Rural Migrants. (2005, October 7). Retrieved from
  17. Sun, D., Zhou, L., Li, Y., Liu, H., Shen, X., Wang, Z., & Wang, X. (2017). New-type urbanization in China: Predicted trends and investment demand for 2015–2030. Journal of Geographical Science.Google Scholar
  18. The middle-income trap. (2012, March 27). Retrieved from
  19. Walters, J., & Kuo, Y. (2016, June 20). China’s Consumers Stay the (slightly slower) Course. Retrieved from
  20. Wang, F. (2010, September 30). Retrieved from
  21. Xiaodong, W. (2016, January 25). Retrieved from
  22. Zhaopin: Nearly 80% of China White Collars Trying to Switch Jobs. (2017, February 27). Retrieved from
  23. Zipser, D., Chen, Y., & Gong, F. (2016). 2016 China Consumer Report. McKinsey&Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok Sethi
    • 1
  1. 1.Illuminera InstituteShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations