Advertisement

Urban Drought pp 155-167 | Cite as

Urban Droughts in India: Case Study of Delhi

  • Shyamli Singh
  • Vinod K. Sharma
Chapter
Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)

Abstract

Delhi pioneers in tabling its climate change adaptation action plan in year 2009–2012 with a Water Mission jacketing water conservation, recycling, and distribution of water. The action plan deals with river water sharing pact with other neighboring states, decentralization of wastewater treatment system, connections, and treatment of drain water through interception sewer project. Revival of water bodies and recharging of rainwater, Delhi is having acute water shortage every year and needs long-term strategy for mitigating urban drought. There is a need to include urban drought as one of natural disaster and have its separate guidelines and preparedness plan as in California (USA) and other developed countries. The chapter deals with existing situation of water availability, well known facts establishing climate change such as rise in temperature, intensity of rainfall, storms and cloud bursts. The climate-related extreme events, viz floods and droughts show an increased occurrence and magnitude too. As Indian economy is agrarian, more emphasis is laid on floods and droughts. Ministry of Agriculture, the nodal ministry for droughts lays emphasis on rural area and agriculture. The urban water scarcity leading to “urban drought” is the responsibility of urban planners and urban municipal authorities. To add to the woes of the already scarce water and sanitation supply, the climate change is slowly but certainly skulking into effect, by the means of altering pattern of rainfall and diminishing groundwater resources. 16.78 million and a population density of 11,320/km2 is housed in Delhi, Capital of India. The water demand is further increasing because of floating population and tourists. To add to the despairs, the population is gradually increasing every year with continuous migration from rural areas of neighboring states. Delhi is situated on the bank on river Yamuna, flanked by Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains in the North and East, the Thar Desert positions in the west, and the south is laced by the Aravalli. Out of the annual rainfall of 65–72 cm, 75% precipitation is experienced within a span of three months. Summer months from April to June show a maximum temperature of 40–45 °C. Water in summer season particularly in the urban slums need urban drought regulation with legal support, guidelines and regulation on water usage. There is need of sensitization of urban authorities, involving communities and academic institutions, and resident welfare organizations for public awareness. Similar plans can be shared with other metropolitan cities of India to provide water security to the urban population. Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an imperative pledge of India thus various ministries, viz Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Water Resources, and Ministry of Agriculture the nodal Ministry can conjointly develop an approach for urban drought mitigation. India is committed to mainstream disaster risk reduction (DRR) and hence, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Water Resources, and Ministry of Agriculture the nodal Ministry can conjointly develop a strategy for urban drought mitigation.

Keywords

Climate change Urban drought mitigation Urban planning Disaster Water and sanitation Capacity building 

References

  1. Agrawal PK (2003) Impact of climate change on Indian agriculture. J Plant Biol 30:189–198Google Scholar
  2. Brooks David B (2003) Another path not taken: a methodological exploration of water soft paths for Canada and elsewhere. Report to Environment Canada, Friends of the Earth Canada, Ottawa, ONGoogle Scholar
  3. Caviedes C (2001) El Niño in history: storming through the ages. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2099-9Google Scholar
  4. Centre for Science and Environment (2017) http://www.cseindia.org. Accessed 7 Sept 2017
  5. City Population (2017) Delhi (India): Union Territory, major agglomerations & towns—population statistics in maps and charts. Retrieved 28 Feb 2017 from https://www.citypopulation.de/India-Delhi.html
  6. Delhi Human Development Report (HDR) (2006) Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. Delhi Jal Board (2007) http://www.delhijalboard.nic.in/. Accessed 12 Oct 2007
  8. Economic Survey of India (2007) The New Delhi municipal council act, 1994. New Delhi Municipal Council. Retrieved 3 July 2007Google Scholar
  9. Gleick PH (2003) Global freshwater resources: soft path solutions for the twenty-first century. Science 302:1524–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gupta AK, Tyagi P, Sehgal VK (2011) Drought disaster challenges and mitigation in India: strategic appraisal. J Curr Sci 100(12):1795–1806Google Scholar
  11. Kandra H, Johri R, Kapur A (2004) Water auditing—tracking unaccounted-for water in Delhi. Waterlines 22(3):19–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lund I (1995) Optimization of transfers in urban water supply planning. J Water Resour Plan Manag 121(1). http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)07339496(1995)121:1(41)#sthash.WOM6q8re.dpuf,  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1995)121:1(41)
  13. Master Plan for Delhi-2021 (2010) Delhi Development Authority, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  14. Moncure James ET (1987) Urban water pricing and drought management. J Water Resour Res 23(3):393–398. Department of Economics and Water Research Centre, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  15. National Disaster Management Plan (2016) National Disaster Management Authority, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. National Sample Survey Office (2014) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Sagane R (2000) Water management in mega-cities in India: Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, and Chennai. In: Uitoo J, Biswas A (eds) Water for urban areas: challenges and perspectives. United Nations press, New York, pp 84–111Google Scholar
  18. Samra JS (2004) Review and analysis of drought monitoring, declaration and management in India. Working Paper 84. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  19. Schiller EJ, Latham BG (1987) A comparison of commonly used hydrologic design methods for rainwater collectors. J Water Resour Dev (3)Google Scholar
  20. State of Indian Agriculture (2016) Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Subrahmanyam VP (1967) Incidence and spread of continental drought. WHO/IHD Report 2Google Scholar
  22. United Nations (2016) The world’s cities in 2016, p 4. Retrieved 4 March 2017Google Scholar
  23. Water policy for Delhi (2015) Department of Jal Board, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Wolff G, Gleick PH (2002) The soft path for water. In: Gleick PH (ed) The world’s water: biennial report on freshwater resources. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 2002–2003Google Scholar
  25. Zerah M (2000) Water: unreliable supply in Delhi. Manohar, DelhiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Public AdministrationNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations