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Gallbladder Cancer

  • Vikram Chaudhari
  • Manish Bhandare
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande
Chapter

Abstract

Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy and sixth most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. It shows significant female preponderance and extreme geographic variation. More than 50% patients have metastatic disease on presentation, and less than 20% patients are surgical candidates. This mandates meticulous preoperative staging with a combination of cross-sectional imaging and/or PET scan and staging laparoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment option. Improvements in surgical techniques, systemic chemotherapy and increased incidental early detections after advent of laparoscopy have resulted in improved results recently. The overall poor prognosis associated with GBC is related to the often advanced stage at diagnosis. For patients with early-stage disease, long-term survival rates range from 85% to 100% with curative surgery. Survival is less than 6 months in advanced metastatic disease. Palliative interventions for relief of jaundice, pain and gastroduodenal obstruction are necessary in majority of patients. Endoscopic or percutaneous approaches are preferred over surgical palliation in view of frequent poor general condition of the patient and limited life expectancy in metastatic gallbladder cancer. Chemotherapy has shown survival advantage in locally advanced and metastatic gallbladder cancer patients.

Keywords

Gallbladder cancer Surgery for gallbladder cancer Management of gallbladder cancer Gallbladder carcinoma 

Abbreviations

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

APBDJ

Anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction

BMI

Body mass index

CA19-9

Carbohydrate antigen 19-9

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen

CT

Computed tomography scan

EC

Extended cholecystectomy

ECOG

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

EUS

Endoscopic ultrasonography

FDG

[18F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose

FNAC

Fine-needle aspiration cytology

GB

Gallbladder

GBC

Gallbladder cancer

GI

Gastrointestinal

HPD

Hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy

LC

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

LFT

Liver function tests

MRA

Magnetic resonance angiography

MRCP

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NACT

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

OS

Overall survival

PD

Pancreaticoduodenectomy

PET

Positron emission tomography

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

RR

Relative risk

TNM

Tumour, node, metastasis

UGI

Upper gastrointestinal

USG/US

Ultrasonography/ultrasound

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikram Chaudhari
    • 1
  • Manish Bhandare
    • 1
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande
    • 1
  1. 1.GI and HPB Services, Department of Surgical OncologyGastro Intestinal Disease Management Group, Tata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia

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