Gallbladder Cancer

  • Vikram Chaudhari
  • Manish Bhandare
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande


Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy and sixth most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. It shows significant female preponderance and extreme geographic variation. More than 50% patients have metastatic disease on presentation, and less than 20% patients are surgical candidates. This mandates meticulous preoperative staging with a combination of cross-sectional imaging and/or PET scan and staging laparoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment option. Improvements in surgical techniques, systemic chemotherapy and increased incidental early detections after advent of laparoscopy have resulted in improved results recently. The overall poor prognosis associated with GBC is related to the often advanced stage at diagnosis. For patients with early-stage disease, long-term survival rates range from 85% to 100% with curative surgery. Survival is less than 6 months in advanced metastatic disease. Palliative interventions for relief of jaundice, pain and gastroduodenal obstruction are necessary in majority of patients. Endoscopic or percutaneous approaches are preferred over surgical palliation in view of frequent poor general condition of the patient and limited life expectancy in metastatic gallbladder cancer. Chemotherapy has shown survival advantage in locally advanced and metastatic gallbladder cancer patients.


Gallbladder cancer Surgery for gallbladder cancer Management of gallbladder cancer Gallbladder carcinoma 



American Joint Committee on Cancer


Anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction


Body mass index


Carbohydrate antigen 19-9


Carcinoembryonic antigen


Computed tomography scan


Extended cholecystectomy


Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group


Epidermal growth factor receptor


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography


Endoscopic ultrasonography




Fine-needle aspiration cytology




Gallbladder cancer






Laparoscopic cholecystectomy


Liver function tests


Magnetic resonance angiography


Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography


Magnetic resonance imaging


Neoadjuvant chemotherapy


Overall survival




Positron emission tomography


Randomized controlled trial


Relative risk


Tumour, node, metastasis


Upper gastrointestinal




Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikram Chaudhari
    • 1
  • Manish Bhandare
    • 1
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande
    • 1
  1. 1.GI and HPB Services, Department of Surgical OncologyGastro Intestinal Disease Management Group, Tata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia

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