Reading Difficulties for Pre-school Children Based on Early Assessment Criteria

  • Hayati Abd RahmanEmail author
  • Nur Shairah Ismail
Conference paper


Reading skill is a basic necessity in children’s early education. In Malaysia, most children are exposed to reading activities as early as 4 years of age. Without it, they will struggle to achieve academically not only in reading and writing but also in areas such as mathematics, sciences and social studies. Therefore, early diagnosis of children’s reading difficulties is very important so that teachers and parents are aware before the children start their prime education program. Inability to read or write a simple word or sentence when they are in primary school is an early symptom, and they need continuous support from teachers and parents in order to be able to continue their learning as normal children. This paper is about an empirical study to determine a score or band based on assessments of reading activities conducted on over 90 pre-school children. The assessments encompass all three learning domain components, namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The children’s performance ability is analysed through an observation method. The range of scores is analysed, and the criteria for the assessments are validated by a psychologist.


Reading difficulties Early assessment criteria 



This work is partially supported by LESTARI, Universiti Teknologi MARA under Grant Nos. 600-RMI/DANA 5/3/LESTARI (28/2015).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Computer and Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia

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