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Flaviviral RNA Structures and Their Role in Replication and Immunity

  • Katell Bidet
  • Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1062)

Abstract

More than simple vectors of genetic information, flaviviral RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of the virus life cycle. Viral RNAs regulate interactions with viral and cellular proteins in both, mosquito and mammalian hosts to ultimately influence processes as diverse as RNA replication, translation, packaging or pathogenicity. In this chapter, we will review the current knowledge of the role of sequence and structures in the flaviviral RNA in viral propagation and interaction with the host cell. We will also cover the increasing body of evidence linking viral non-coding RNAs with pathogenicity, host immunity and epidemic potential.

Keywords

Flavivirus RNA Structures Replication Pathogenesis 

Abbreviations

(+)gRNA

Positive-stranded genome RNA

(−)gRNA

Negative-stranded antigenome RNA

3′DB

3′ untranslated region dumbbell region

3′HP

3′ hairpin

3′SL

3′ terminal stem loop

3′VR

3′ untranslated region variable region

3′xrRNA

3′ exonuclease-resistant RNA structure

5′cHP

5′ capsid hairpin

5′ and 3′CS

5′ and 3′ complementary cyclization sequences

5′ and 3′UAR

5′ and 3′ complementary upstream of A regions

5′SLA/SLB

5′ terminal stem loop A/B

DENV

Dengue virus

DIG

Defective interfering genome

dsRNA

Double-stranded RNA

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

IFN

Interferon type I (IFN-α and IFN-β)

ISG

Interferon-stimulated genes

JEV

Japanese encephalitis virus

KUNV

Kunjin virus

MTase

Methyltransferase

m6A

N-6 methyladenosine

ncRNA

Non-coding RNA

NTPase

Nucleoside triphosphatase

ORF

Open reading frame

PRR

Pathogen recognition receptor

RdRp

RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase

RNAi

RNA interference

sfRNA

Subgenomic flaviviral RNA

UTR

Untranslated region

vsRNA

Viral small RNA

WNV

West Nile virus

YFV

Yellow fever virus

ZIKV

Zika virus

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katell Bidet
    • 1
  • Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and TechnologySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Programme in Emerging Infectious DiseasesDuke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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