Advertisement

Insect Pests of Vegetables

  • Neha Kunjwal
  • Ravi Mohan Srivastava
Chapter

Abstract

Vegetables are good sources of proteins (peas, beans and garlic), vitamins (tomato, carrot, peas, tomato, garlic, green chillies and cole crops), minerals (drumstick pods) and carbohydrates (leguminous vegetables, methi, potato and sweet potato). Many of the vegetable crops, such as onion and garlic, possesses high medical value (Harris et al. 2001) that helps to reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, gastrointestinal issues, high blood pressure, eye disease and many more. Vegetable cultivation is an important and alternative source of income, especially in urban and suburban areas. More than 40 kinds of vegetables belonging to different groups, namely, solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, leguminous, cruciferous (cole crops) and tuber crops, are grown in India. India is the second largest producer of vegetables after China with 2.8% of total cropped area. The area under cultivation of vegetables stood at 9.542 million hectares. India ranks first in production of ginger and okra among vegetables and second in production of potatoes, onions, cauliflowers, brinjal, cabbages, etc. With current level of vegetable production in the country (146.55 million ton) considering 25% postharvest losses and 5% export and processing, per capita consumption of vegetables in our country is 230 g as against recommended requirements of 300 g. India has a relatively low, around 1.5%, global share of export of vegetables because of large domestic consumption and the attack of insect pests (10,000 species), diseases (100,000 diseases, caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms), nematodes (1000 species) and weeds (Hall 1995; Dhaliwal et al. 2007). The total worldwide food and preharvest losses due to insect pests, plant pathogens and weeds were estimated to be about 45% (of total food production) and 30%, respectively (Pimentel and Levitan 1986).

References

  1. Akinlosotu TA (1983) Destructive and beneficial insects associated with vegetables in South West Nigeria. Trop Hortic 6:217–228Google Scholar
  2. Ambethgara V (2015) Field evaluation of some insecticides against white-tailed mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) infesting cashew. Acta Hortic 1080:469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ananthakrishnan TN (1993) Bionomics of thrips. Annu Rev Entomol 38:71–92Google Scholar
  4. Arivudainambi S, Chandar VA (2009) Management of pulses blue butterfly, Lampides boeticus L. in green gram. Karnataka J Agric Sci 22(3):624–625Google Scholar
  5. Arthurs S, McKenzie CL, Chen J, Dogramaci M, Brennan M, Houben K, Osborne L (2009) Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on pepper. Biol Control 49:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atwal AS (1976) Agricultural pests of Indian and Southeast Asia. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 529 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Atwal AS, Dhaliwal GS (2005) Agriculture pests of South Asia and their management. Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi, 505 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayyar TVR (1920) Some insects recently noted as injurious in South India. In: Report of proceedings. 3rd Ent. meeting. 1:315–317Google Scholar
  9. Babu BS, Pandravada SR, Reddy KJ, Varaprasad KS, Sreekanth M (2002) Field screening of pepper germplasm for sources of resistance against leaf curl caused by thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks). Indian J Plant Prot 30(1):7–12Google Scholar
  10. Bae SD (1999) Leaf characteristics of leguminous plants and the biology of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. The larval development and leaf feeding amount. Kor J Appl Entomol 38:217–224Google Scholar
  11. Bae SD, Park KB (1999) Effects of temperature and food source on pupal development adult longevity and oviposition of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Kor J Appl Entomol 38:23–28Google Scholar
  12. Bhagat KC, Munshi SK (2004) Host preference of spotted leaf eating beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabr.) on different brinjal varieties. Pest Manag Econ Zool 12:77–81Google Scholar
  13. Bhagat KC, Masoodi MA, Bhat OK, Koul VK (1989) Kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC, a new host plant of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau from Kashmir. J Insect Sci 2(2):173–174Google Scholar
  14. Bhat AI, Devasahayam S, Sarma YR, Pant RP (2003) Association of a badnavirus in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) transmitted by mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) in India. Curr Sci 84(12):1547–1550Google Scholar
  15. Bhatt NJ, Patel PK (2001) Biology of chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. Indian J Entomol 63(3):255–259Google Scholar
  16. Bhawane GP, Gaikwad SM, Mamlayya AB, Aland SR (2011) Life cycle of Holotrichia karschi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae : Melolonthinae). The Bioscan 6(3):471–474Google Scholar
  17. Birthal PS, Sharma OP, Kumar S, Dhandapani A (2000) Pesticide use in rainfed cotton: frequency, intensity and determinants. Agric Econ Res Rev 13(2):107–122Google Scholar
  18. Brust GE (1997) Interaction of Erwinia tracheiphila and muskmelon plants. Environ Entomol 26(4):849–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butani DK, Jotwani MG (1984) Insects in vegetables. Periodical Expert Book Agency, New Delhi, 356 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Byrne DN, Miller WB (1990) Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of phloem sap and honeydew produced by Bemisia tabaci. J Insect Physiol 36(6):433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Capinera JL (2008) Spotted cucumber beetle or southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Enc Entomol 1:3519–3522Google Scholar
  22. Carvalho LM, Bueno VHP, Martinez RP (2002) Alate aphids survey on vegetable crops in Lavras (MG). Cien Agrotecnol 26(3):523–532Google Scholar
  23. Chako MJ, Bhat PK (1976) Record of Ferrisia virgata and its natural enemy, Spalgis epius, on coffee in India. J Coffee Res 6(2):56–57Google Scholar
  24. Chan CK, Forbes AR, Raworth DA (1991) Aphid-transmitted viruses and their vectors of the world. Research Branch/Agriculture Canada, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen H, Yada R (2011) Nanotechnologies in agriculture: new tools for sustainable development. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheng EY (1988) Problems of control of insecticide-resistant Plutella xylostella. Pest Manag Sci 23(2):177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chiemsombat P, Gajanandana O, Warin N, Hongprayoon R, Bhunchoth A, Pongsapich P (2008) Biological and molecular characterization of tospoviruses in Thailand. Arch Virol 153:571–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chowdhury M (2009) Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard. J Plant Prot Sci 1(1):80–82Google Scholar
  29. Cramer HH (1967) Plant protection and world crop production. Bayer Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten 20:1–24Google Scholar
  30. Cuthbertson AG (2014) The feeding rate of predatory mites on life stages of Bemisia tabaci mediterranean species. Insects 5(3):609–614PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cuthbertson AG, Head J, Walters KF, Murray AW (2003) The integrated use of chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, for the control of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Nematology 5(5):713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cuthbertson AG, Walters KF, Northing P (2005) The susceptibility of immature stages of Bemisia tabaci to the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium on tomato and verbena foliage. Mycopathologia 159(1):23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cuthbertson AG, Mathers JJ, Northing P, Luo W, Walters KF (2007) Short note the susceptibility of immature stages of Bemisia tabaci to infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Russ J Nematol 15(2):153–156Google Scholar
  34. Cuthbertson AGS, Buxton JH, Blackburn LF, Mathers JJ, Robinson KA, Powell ME, Bell HA (2012) Eradicating Bemisia tabaci Q biotype on poinsettia plants in the UK. Crop Prot 42:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Damayanti TA, Alabi OJ, Naidu RA, Rauf A (2009) Severe outbreak of a yellow mosaic disease on the yard long bean in Bogor, West Java. Hayati J Biosci 16(2):78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Darandale SN, Gaikwad SE, Harde AL (2014) Bioefficacy of some acaricides against red spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) infesting brinjal. Trends Biosci 7(18):2713–2718Google Scholar
  37. Dhaliwal GS, Arora R (2014) Integrated pests management. Kalyani Publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Dhaliwal GS, Dhawan AK, Singh R (2007) Biodiversity and ecological agriculture: issues and perspectives. Indian J Ecol 34(2):100–109Google Scholar
  39. Dhillon MK, Singh R, Naresh JS, Sharma HC (2005) The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: a review of its biology and management. J Insect Sci 5:40–56PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ebert TA, Cartwright B (1997) Biology and ecology of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: aphididae). Southwest Entomol 22:116–153Google Scholar
  41. Ellers-Kirk CD, Fleischer SJ, Snyder RH, Lynch JP (2000) Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucumbers grown in conventional and organic soil management systems. J Econ Entomol 93(3):605–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eslamizadeh R, Sajap AS, Omar D, Adam NA (2013) First record of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) infecting Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Malaysia. J Entomol 10(4):182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fathipour Y, Hosseini A, Talebi AA, Moharramipour S (2006) Functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomologica Fennica 17:90–97Google Scholar
  44. Firdaus S, Van Heusden AW, Hidayati N, Supena EDJ, Visser RG, Vosman B (2012) Resistance to Bemisia tabaci in tomato wild relatives. Euphytica 187(1):31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fishpool LDC, Burban C (1994) Bemisia tabaci: the whitefly vector of African cassava mosaic geminivirus. Trop Sci 34(1):55–72Google Scholar
  46. Fletcher BS (1987) The biology of Dacine fruit flies. Annu Rev Entomol 32:115–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fowler G, Lakin K (2001) Risk Assessment: The Old Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner),(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). USDA-APHIS, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (Internal Report), Raleigh, NC, 1–19 pGoogle Scholar
  48. Gabrys BJ, Gadomski HJ, Klukowski Z, Pickett JA, Sobota GT, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1997) Sex pheromone of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae :identification and field trapping of male aphids and parasitoids. J Chem Ecol 23:1881–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gajalakshmi M, Jeyarani S, Ramaraju K (2016) Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana with plant extracts evaluated against okra two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Indian J Entomol 78(3):219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ghosal TK, Senapati SK, Deb DC (2005) Records of hymenopterous parasitoids and a hot-parasitic check list of the Brassica oilseed crops of India. J Ecobiol 17:251–259Google Scholar
  51. Ghose SK, Paul PK (1972) Observations on the biology of the mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera). Proc Zool Soc (Calcutta) 25:39–48Google Scholar
  52. Gowrish KR, Ramesha B, Ushakumari R (2015) Biorational management of major pests of brinjal. Indian J Entomol 77(1):51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hall R (1995) Challenges and prospects of integrated pest management. In: Reuveni R (ed) Novel approaches to integrated pest management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  54. Harris MA, Begley JW, Warkentin DL (1990) Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) suppression with foliar applications of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and abamectin. J Econ Entomol 83(6):2380–2384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris JC, Cotrell SL, Plummer S, Lloyd D (2001) Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:282–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hasan F, Ansari MS (2011) Population growth of Pieris brassicae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on different cole crops under laboratory conditions. J Pest Sci 84(2):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ho CC, Lo CC, Chen WH (1997) Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on various crops 370 in Taiwan. J Agric Res China 46:333–346Google Scholar
  58. Hofmaster RN (1961) Seasonal abundance of the cabbage looper as related to light trap collections, precipitation, temperature and the incidence of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Econ Entomol 54(4):796–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horna D, Timpo S Al-Hassan RM Smale M, Falck-Zepeda J (2007) Vegetable production and pesticide use in Ghana: would GM varieties have an impact at the farm level? In: AAAE conference proceedings. 473–477 ppGoogle Scholar
  60. Inoue-Nagata AK, Lima MF, Gilbertson RL (2016) A review of geminivirus diseases in vegetables and other crops in Brazil: current status and approaches for management. Hortic Bras 34(1):8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Islam K, Islam MS, Ferdousi Z (2011) Control of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata fab. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using some indigenous plant extracts. J Life Earth Sci 6:75–80Google Scholar
  62. Jagginavar SB, Sunitha ND, Biradar AP (2009) Bioefficacy of flubendiamide 480C against brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Karnatka J Agric Sci 22:712–713Google Scholar
  63. Jaharlal S, Chakraborty K, Chatterjee T (2016) Biology of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. J Glob Biosci 5(8):4467–4473Google Scholar
  64. Jaiswal JP, Gurung TB, Pandey RR (1997) Findings of melon fruit fly control survey and its integrated management. Lumle Agriculture Research Centre, Kashi, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  65. Kamble CS, Sathe TV (2015) Incidence and host plants for Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) from kolhapur region, India. Int J Dev Res 5(3):3658–3661Google Scholar
  66. Kapur AP (1950) The biology and external morphology of larvae of Epilachninae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Bull Entomol Res 41:161–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Karmakar K, Bhattacharya B (2000) Performance of a local brinjal variety (Solanum melongena L.) and its pest management under terai agroecological conditions. Environ Ecol 18(2):344–346Google Scholar
  68. Karou D, Savadogo A, Canini A, Yameogo S, Montesano C, Simpore J, Traore AS (2006) Antibacterial activity of Alkaloids from Sida acuta. Afr J Biotechnol 4:1452–1457Google Scholar
  69. Kaydan MB, Gullan PJ (2012) A taxonomic revision of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of eight new species and a new genus. Zootaxa 3543:1–65Google Scholar
  70. Kazak C, Colkesen T, Karut K, Sekeroglu E (1997) Biological control of Tetranychus cinnabarimus by Phytoseiulus persimilis on green house cucumbers. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 23(1):195–200Google Scholar
  71. Khan SM (1976) Biology and control of Agrotis spp. M.Sc. Thesis, submitted to the Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peshawar. 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Khan MMH, Alam MZ, Rahman MM, Miah MI, Hossain MM (2012) Influence of weather on the incidence and distribution of red pumpkin beetle infesting cucurbits. Bangladesh J Agric Res 37(2):361–367Google Scholar
  73. Kielkiewicz M (1994) The appearance of phenolics in tomato leaf tissues exposed to spider mite attack. Acta Hortic 381:687–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klungness LM, Jang EB, Mau RFL, Vargas RI, Sugano JS, Fujitani E (2005) New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 9:5–15Google Scholar
  75. Kodandaram MH, Rai AB, Sireesha K, Halder J (2015) Efficacy of cyantraniliprole a new anthranilic diamide insecticide against (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) of brinjal. J Environ Biol 36:1415–1420Google Scholar
  76. Kudagamage DC, Gannoruwa P (1998) Present status of horticulture research in Sri Lanka. Demography 28(30):900–1000Google Scholar
  77. Lal OP (1975) A compendium of insect pest of vegetables in India. Bulletin of. Entomology 16:31–56Google Scholar
  78. Lal OP (1991) Varietal resistance in the eggplant, Solanum melongena against the shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 98(4):405–410Google Scholar
  79. Lawrence AL, Kroschel J (2008) Microbial control of the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Fruit Veg Cereal Sci Biotechnol 3(1):46–54Google Scholar
  80. Malik S, Jabeen T, Solangi BK, Qureshi NA (2012) Insect pests and predators associated with different mustard varieties at Tandojam. Sindh Univ Res J 44:221–226Google Scholar
  81. Mallapur CP (1988) Studies on seasonal incidence and chemical control of cabbage pests. M. Sc. (Agri) thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. p 114Google Scholar
  82. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Singh SP (1990) The impact of the predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, on pesticide-resistant populations of the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Ckll.) on guava in India. Insect Sci Appl 11(2):167–170Google Scholar
  83. Manjunatha M, Hanchinal SG, Kulkarni SV (2001) Effect of intercropping on incidence of mite and thrips in chilli. Karnataka J Agric Sci 14(2):493–495Google Scholar
  84. Manzoor U, Haseeb M, Sharma DK (2013) Biology of Pea leaf miner. Ann Plant Prot Sci 21(1):180–181Google Scholar
  85. Marimuthu S (2008) Effect of Pongamia glabra oil on cut worm, Spodoptera litura and its natural enemies in tomato. J Ecobiol 23(1):61–66Google Scholar
  86. Maureal AM, Noriel LM, Esguerra NM (1982) Life history and behaviour of eggplant fruit borer. Ann Trop Res 4(3):178Google Scholar
  87. Mavi GS (1992) A critical review on distribution and host range of pea blue butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Linn.) J Insect Sci 5(2):115–119Google Scholar
  88. McCollum TG, Stoffella PJ, Powell CA, Cantliffe DJ, Hanif-Khan S (2004) Effects of silverleaf whitefly feeding on tomato fruit ripening. Postharvest Biol Technol 31(2):183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mishra PN, Singh MP (1999) Studies on the ovicidal action of diflubenzuron on the eggs of Dacus (Bactrocera) cucurbitae Coq. damaging cucumber. Ann Plant Prot Sci 7:94–96Google Scholar
  90. Mishra RK, Jaiswal RK, Kumar D, Saabale PR, Singh A (2014) Management of major diseases and insect pests of onion and garlic: a comprehensive review. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 6(11):160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mohandas S, Saravanan Y, Manjunath K (2004) Biological control of Myllocerus subasciatus Guerin infesting Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) using Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis. Acta Hortic 638:503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Morales FJ, Jones PG (2004) The ecology and epidemiology of whitefly-transmitted viruses in Latin America. Virus Res 100(1):57–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Morse JG, Hoddle MS (2005) Invasion biology of thrips. Annu Rev Entomol 51:67–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mwanauta RW, Mtei KM, Ndakidemi PA (2015) Potential of controlling common bean insect pests (bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia phaseoli), Ootheca (Ootheca bennigseni) and Aphids (Aphis fabae)) using agronomic, biological and botanical practices in field. Agric Sci 6:489–497Google Scholar
  95. Nigam GL, Murthy KS (2000) An optimum use of pesticides in integrated pest management technology. Pestic Inf 25(1):6–9Google Scholar
  96. Ochilo WN, Nyamasyo GH (2011) Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) and black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita District, Kenya [Situación de las plagas del frijol: Gusano del Tallo]. Trop Subtrop Agro Ecosystems 13:91–97Google Scholar
  97. Oerke EC, Dekne HW, Schonbeck F, Weber A (1994) Crop production and crop protection-estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Elsevier Science B, Amsterdam, 808 ppGoogle Scholar
  98. Ogbalu OK, Ekweozor IKE (2002) The distribution of okra flea beetles on three varieties of okra in traditional farms of the Niger Delta. Trop Sci 42:52–56Google Scholar
  99. Ogbalu OK, Amachree EI, Amifor PN, Ben-Kalio G (2005) The distribution of insect fauna of cultivated vegetables of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Appl Trop Agric 9(1):1–6Google Scholar
  100. Oke OA, Charles NC, Ismael C, Lesperance D (2010) Efficacy of a botanical and biological method to control the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata L.) under open field conditions at Anse Boileau, Seychelles. J Agric Ext Rural Dev 2(7):141–143Google Scholar
  101. Opfer P, McGrath D (2013) Oregon vegetables, cabbage aphid and green peach aphid. Corvallis, Department of Horticulture/Oregon State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  102. Peter C, Singh I, Channa- Basavanna GP, Suman CL, Krishnaiah K (1988) Loss estimation in cabbage due to leaf webber Crocidolomia binotalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 85(3):642–644Google Scholar
  103. Pimentel D, Levitan L (1986) Pesticide: amounts applied and amounts reaching pests. Biol Sci 36:86–91Google Scholar
  104. Ramesh K, Kumar A, Kalita H, Avasthe RK (2014) Ecofriendly management of cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon and cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae in cabbage. Indian J Plant Prot 42(4):349–353Google Scholar
  105. Rao RD, Prasada VJ, Reddy AS, Reddy SV, Kumari TD, Rao CS, Kumar MV, Subramaniam K, Yellamanda RT, Nigam SN, Reddy DVR (2003) The host range of tobacco streak virus in India and transmission by thrips. Ann Appl Biol 142:365–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rashid MA, Khan MA, Arif MJ, Javed N (2014) Red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas; a review of host susceptibility and management practices. Acad J Entomol 7(1):38–54Google Scholar
  107. Rawat RR, Sahu HR (1973) Estimation of losses in growth and yield of okra due to Empoasca devastans Dist and Earias sp. Indian J Entomol 35:252–254Google Scholar
  108. Reddy KVS, Zehr UB (2004) Novel strategies for overcoming pests and diseases in India. Mahrashtra Hybrid Seeds Co. Ltd, JalnaGoogle Scholar
  109. Reed W (1965) Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Noctuidae) in western Tanganyika: II. Ecology and natural and chemical control. Bull Entomol Res 56:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reitz RS, Gao Y, Lei Z (2013) Insecticide use and the ecology of invasive Liriomyza leafminer management (Trdan S, eds). InTech, Rijeka, 235–255 ppGoogle Scholar
  111. Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL (1994) Pest management in the subtropics: biological control – a Florida perspective. Intercept Limited, Andover, 737 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. Rouf FMA, Sardar MA (2011) Effect of crude seed extract of some indigenous plants for the control of legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata F.) on country bean. Bangladesh J Agric Res 36:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Roush DK, McKenzie JA (1987) Ecological genetics of insecticide and acaricide resistance. Annu Rev Entomol 32:361–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sadeghi A, Van-Damme EJM, Smagghe G (2009) Evaluation of the susceptibility of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, to a selection of novel biorational insecticides using an artificial diet. J Insect Sci 9(65):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sahito HA, Lanjar AG, Mal B (2010) Studies on population dynamics of sucking insect pests of mustard crop (Brassica campestris). Pakistan J Agric Agric Eng Vet Sci 26:66–74Google Scholar
  116. Saini P, Gopal M, Kumar R, Srivastava C (2014) Development of pyridalyl nanocapsule suspension for efficient management of tomato fruit and shoot borer (Helicoverpa armigera). J Environ Sci Health 49:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sajjad M, Ashfaq M, Suhail A, Akhtar S (2011) Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera in Pakistan. Pakistan J Agric Sci 48:49–52Google Scholar
  118. Saranya S, Ushakumari R, Jacob S, Philip BM (2010) Efficacy of different entomopathogenic fungi against cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch). J Biopest 3:138–142Google Scholar
  119. Sardana HR (2001) Integrated pest management in vegetables. In: Training manual-2 May 21–26, training on IPM for zonal agricultural research stations, pp 105–118Google Scholar
  120. Sathe TV, Patil SS, Bhosale AM, Devkar SS, Govali CS, Hankare SS (2016) Ecology and control of Brinjal insect pests from Kolhapur region, India. Bio life 4(1):147–154Google Scholar
  121. Seal DR, Ciomperlik M, Richards ML, Klassen W (2006a) Distribution of the chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), within pepper plants and within pepper fields on St. Vincent. Fla Entomol 89:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Seal DR, Ciomperlik M, Richards ML, Klassen W (2006b) Comparative effectiveness of chemical insecticides against the chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on pepper and their compatibility with natural enemies. Crop Prot 25(9):949–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Seal DR, Kumar V, Klassen W, Sabine K (2008) Response of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and melon thrips, Thrips palmi, to some selected insecticides. Proc Caribbean Food Crops Soc 44:578Google Scholar
  124. Seal DR, Klassen W, Kumar V (2010) Biological parameters of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, on selected hosts. Environ Entomol 39(5):1389–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sharma HC, Clement SL, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Rao GVR, Bouhssini MEL, Ujagir R, Srivastava CP, Miles M (2005) Proceedings of the fourth international food legumes research conference (IFLRC-IV). Food Legumes for Nutritional Security and Sustainable Agriculture 1:522–544Google Scholar
  126. Sharma RP, Swaminathan R, Bhati KK (2010) Seasonal incidence of fruit and shoot borer of okra along with climatic factors in Udaipur region of India. Asian J Agric Res 4(4):232–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shivalingaswamy TM, Satpathy S, Singh B, Kumar A (2002) Predator-prey interaction between jassid Amrasca devastans and staphylinid in Okra. In: International Conference on Vegetables. November 11–14. Bangalore, India. 275 pGoogle Scholar
  128. Shorey HH (1963) A simple artificial rearing medium for the cabbage looper. J Econ Entomol 56(4):536–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Singh H, Dhooria MS (1971) Bionomics of the pea pod borer, Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke). Indian J Entomol 33(2):123–130Google Scholar
  130. Singh SR, Jackai LEN (1988) The legume pod-borer Maruca testulalis (Geyer): past, present and future research. Insect Sci Appl 9:1–5Google Scholar
  131. Singh SR, Taylor TA (1978) Pests of grain legumes and their control in Nigeria. In: Singh SR, Van Enden HF, Taylor TA (eds) Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Academic Press, New York, pp 99–111Google Scholar
  132. Singh DK, Singh R, Dwivedi RK (2008) Evaluation of bio-pesticides against Lepidopterous pests of cabbage. Ann Plant Prot Sci 16(2):316–319Google Scholar
  133. Sivapragasam A, Abdul Aziz AM (1990) Cabbage webworm on crucifers in malaysia. In: Talekar NS (ed) Diamondback moth and other crucifer pests. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, pp. 75–80. 603 ppGoogle Scholar
  134. Smith C, Boyko E (2007) The molecular bases of plant resistance and defense responses to aphid feeding: current status. Entomol Exp Appl 122:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Smythe RR, Hoffmann MP (2010) Seasonal incidence of two co-occurring adult parasitoids of Acalymma vittatum in New York State: Centistes (Syrrhizus) diabroticae and Celatoria setosa. BioControl 55:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sood AK, Bhalla OP (1996) Ecological studies on the cabbage white butterfly in the mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh. J Insect Sci 9(2):122–125Google Scholar
  137. Souza JC (1993) Moscaminadora: evitandoprejuízos. Sinal Verde 6:10–11Google Scholar
  138. Souza JC, Reis PRO (1999) Minador-das-folhas da batata. Informe Agropecuário 20:77–84Google Scholar
  139. Spencer KA (1973) Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. The Pitman Press, Bath, 415 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Srinivasan K (1994) Recent trends in insect pest management in vegetable crops. In: Dhaliwal GS, Arora R (eds) Trends in agricultural insect pest management. Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi, pp 345–372Google Scholar
  141. Stafford CA, Walker GP, Ullman DE (2011) Infection with a plant virus modifies vector feeding behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(23):9350–9355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sun CN, Wu TK, Chen JS, Lee WT (1986) Insecticide resistance in diamondback moth. In: Diamondback moth management: proceedings of the first international workshop. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center. AVRDC, Shanhua/Taiwan, pp 359–371Google Scholar
  143. Surdkar A, Ukey SP (2016) Seed treatment with botanicals against tomato jassids and whiteflies. Indian J Entomol 78(3):229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Talekar NS, Shelton AM (1993) Biology, ecology, and management of the diamondback moth. Annu Rev Entomol 38(1):275–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tariq M, Syed IH, Khalid MK, Jeelani G, Mukhtar A (2002) Population dynamic of leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) on brinjal and effect of abiotic factors on its dynamics. Asian J Plant Sci 1(4):403–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Theurkar S, Patil SB, Ghadage MK, Zaware YB, Madan SS (2013) Distribution and abundance of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Khed Taluka, part of Northern Western Ghats, MS, India. Res J Biol Sci 1(7):1–6Google Scholar
  147. Trumble JT, Ting IP, Bates L (1985) Analysis of physiological, growth, and yield responses of celery to Liriomyza trifolii. Entomol Exp Appl 38(1):15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vail KM, Kok LT, McAvoy TJ (1991) Cultivar preferences of lepidopterous pests of broccoli. Crop Prot 10:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Venkateswarlu V, Sharma RK, Sharma K (2011) Evaluation of eco-friendly insecticides against major insect pests of cabbage. Pestic Res J 23:172–180Google Scholar
  150. Verma AN, Sandhu GS (1968) Chemical control of diamondback moth, Plutella maculipennis (Curtis). J Res Punjab Agric Univ 5:420–423Google Scholar
  151. Verma KS, Verma AK (2002) Cutworm species associated with different crops in Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environ 8(1):23Google Scholar
  152. Wang NC, Li ZH (1984) Studies on the biology of cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera Hubner) and tobacco budworm (Heliothis assulta Quenee). J Shandong Agric Univ 1-2:13–25Google Scholar
  153. Whitfield AE, Ullman DE, German TL (2005) Tospovirus-thrips interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:459–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Kunjwal
    • 1
  • Ravi Mohan Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Entomology, College of AgricultureG.B. Pant University of Agriculture and TechnologyPantnagarIndia

Personalised recommendations