Advertisement

Insect Pest Management

  • Bhupendra Kumar
  • Omkar
Chapter

Abstract

Although insects represent the major portion of the existing biodiversity, some of the species are a curse to human beings because they cause food loss and spread diseases. The modern agricultural practices have also altered the bionomics and behaviour of many naturally occurring insect species and have lowered their key natural mortality factors. However, in spite of comprehensive measures of crop protection, about 10% of agricultural yield is reduced globally by insect pests before harvest. While the use of chemical pesticides has increased by 15- to 20-folds in the past 40 years, the expected crop losses to pests have also increased. Hence, there is a necessity to develop pest management strategies that would be based on the rational selection, integration and implementation of available compatible control methods, such as cultural, physical, mechanical, biological, legal, behavioural, hormonal and genetic. Thus, in the present chapter, attempts have been made to emphasize insect pests, damages caused by them and ways by which ecofriendly approaches may be developed to control their increasing populations.

Keywords

Insect pests Chemical control Biological control Behavioural control Legal control Integrated pest management (IPM) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Department of Higher Education, Government of Uttar Pradesh, India, for providing financial assistance in the form of Center of Excellence in Biocontrol of Insect Pests.

References

  1. Aluja M, Prokopy RJ (1993) Host odor and visual stimulus interaction during intratree host finding behavior of Rhagoletis pomonella flies. J Chem Ecol 19:2671–2696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arn H, Toth M, Priesner E (1992) List of sex pheromones of Lepidoptera and related attractants, 2nd edn. Wadenswil, Switzerland: OILB/IOBC-WPRS. 179 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Asai TA, Kajihara M, Fukada F, Makekawa S (1985) Studies on the mode of action of buprofezin II. Effects on reproduction of the brown planthopper, Nivaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Appl Entomol Zool 20:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ascher KR (1993) Nonconventional insecticidal effects of pesticides available from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 22:433–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson PW, Pinkerton AC, O’Brochta DA (2001) Genetic transformation systems in insects. Annu Rev Entomol 46:317–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Attathom T (2002) Biotechnology for insect pest control. In: Proceedings of sat. forum, “sustainable agricultural system in Asia,” Nagoya: June (2002)Google Scholar
  7. Ave DA (1995) Stimulation of feeding: insect control agents. In: Chapman RF, de Boer G (eds) Regulatory mechanisms in insect feeding. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 345–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Awad TI, Ӧnder F, Kismali Ş (1998) Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) agacindan elde edilen dogal pestisitler uzerinde bir inceleme. Turk Entomol Derg 22:225–240Google Scholar
  9. Bakke A, Lie R (1989) Mass trapping. In: Jutsum AR, Gordon RFS (eds) Insect pheromones in plant protection. Wiley, Chichester, pp 67–87Google Scholar
  10. Bale JS, van Lenteren JC, Bigler F (2008) Biological control and sustainable food production. Philos Trans R Soc B 363:761–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bansiddhi K (2000) Combination treatments with irradiation for controlling orchid thrips, Thrips Palmi Karny. In: Report, 2nd research coordination meeting on irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for food and agricultural commodities. FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bates SL, Zhao JZ, Roush RT, Shelton AM (2005) Insect resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future. Nat Biotechnol 23(1):57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baum JA, Johnson TB, Carlton BC (1999) Bacillus thuringiensis natural and recombinant bioinsecticide products. In: Hall FR, Menn JJ (eds) Biopesticides use and delivery. Methods in Biotechnology No. 5. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, pp 189–209Google Scholar
  14. Bazdyrev GI (2000) Crop rotations and intercropping as a way of weed control. Zashchita I Karantin Rastenii 10Google Scholar
  15. Belinato TA, Martins AJ, Lima JBP, Lima-Camara TND, Peixoto AA, Valle D (2009) Effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron on the development, viability and reproduction of Aedes aegypti. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104(1):43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellows TS, Fisher TW (1999) Handbook biological control. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennet FD (1971) Some recent successes in the field of biological control in the West Indies. Revista Peruana de Entomologia 14(2):369–373Google Scholar
  18. Berg G (2009) Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernays EA, Chapman RF (1994) Host- plant selection by phytophagous insects. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhatia V, Maisnam J, Jain A, Sharma KK, Bhattacharya R (2015) Aphid-repellent pheromone E-β-farnesene is generated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing farnesyl diphosphate synthase 2. Ann Bot 115(4):581–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhatti JS, Van Kooten GC, Apps MJ, Laird LD, Campbell ID, Campbell C, Turetsky MR, Yu Z, Banfield E (2003) Carbon balance and climate change in boreal forests. In: Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest, pp 799–855Google Scholar
  22. Biddinger DJ, Hull LA, Mcpheron BA (1996) Cross-resistance and synergism in azinphosmethyl resistant and susceptible strains of tufted apple bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to various insect growth regulators and avarmectin. J Econ Entomol 89:274–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bjerke JW, Karlsen SR, Høgda KA, Malnes E, Jepsen JU, Lovibond S, Vikhamar-Schuler D, Tømmervik H (2014) Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks. Environ Res Lett 9(8):084006Google Scholar
  24. Björkman C, Bylund H, Klapwijk MJ, Kollberg I, Schroeder M (2011) Insect pests in future forests: more severe problems? Forests 2(2):474–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blaney WM, Simmonds MSJ, Ley SV, Katz RB (1987) An electrophysiological and behavioural study of insect antifeedant properties of natural and synthetic drimane-related compounds. Physiol Entomol 12:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boiteau G, Lynch DH, Martin RC (2008) Influence of fertilization on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in organic potato production. Environ Entomol 37(2):575–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borden JH (1988) Use of semiochemicals to manage coniferous tree pests in western CanadaGoogle Scholar
  28. Bottrell DR (1979) Integrated pest management: definition, features, and scope. In: Council on environmental quality. Integrated pest management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 19–26Google Scholar
  29. Buchel KH (1983) Chemistry of pesticides. Wiley, New York. 518 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Bull DL, Meola RW (1993) Effect and fate of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen after application to the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 86:1754–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Buntin GD, Hudson RD (1991) Spring control of the hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in winter wheat using insecticides. J Econ Entomol 84(6):1913–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Butenandt A (1959) Uber den Sexuallockstoff des Seidenspinners Bombyx mori; Reindarstellung und Konstitution. Z Naturforsch Teil B 14:283–284Google Scholar
  33. Campion DG, Nesbitt BF (1981) Lepidopteran sex pheromones and pest management in developing countries. Int J Pest Manag 27(1):53–61Google Scholar
  34. Cardé RT, Minks AK (1995) Control of moth pests by mating disruption: successes and constraints. Annu Rev Entomol 40:559–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carruthers RI, Onsager JA (1993) Perspective on the use of exotic natural enemies for biological control of pest grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Environ Entomol 22:885–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carton B, Smagghe G, Tirry L (2003) Toxicity of two ecdysone agonists, halofenozide and metoxyfenozide, against the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, (Col., Coccinallidae). J Appl Entomol 127:240–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Castresana J, Gagliano E, Puhl L, Bado S, Vianna L, Castresana M (2008) Attraction of thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to light traps in Gerbera jamesonii (G.) crops. IDESIA 26:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cate JR, Hinkle MK (1994) Integrated pest management: the path of a paradigm. National Audubon Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  39. Caterino MS, Cho S, Sperling FA (2000) The current state of insect molecular systematics: a thriving tower of babel. Annu Rev Entomol 45(1):1–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chambers DL (1978) Attractants for fruit fly survey and control. In: Shorey HH, McKelvey JJ (eds) Chemical control of insect behavior: theory and application. Wiley, New York, pp 327–344Google Scholar
  41. Chapman RF (1998) The insects: structure and function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 770 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Chapman RF (2012) The insects: structure and function, 5th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 959 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Charmillot PJ, Gourmelon A, Fabre AL, Pasquier D (2001) Ovicidal and larvicidal effectiveness of several insect growth inhibitors and regulators on the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lep., Tortricidae). J Appl Entomol 125(3):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chau A, Heinz KM (2006) Manipulating fertilization: a management tactic against Frankliniella occidentalis on potted chrysanthemum. Entomol Exp Appl 120(3):201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chau A, Heinz KM, Davies FT (2005) Influences of fertilization on Aphis gossypii and insecticide usage. J Appl Entomol 129(2):89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chow A, Chau A, Heinz KM (2009) Reducing fertilization for cut roses: effect on crop productivity and twospotted spider mite abundance, distribution, and management. J Econ Entomol 102(5):1896–1907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cloyd RA, Bethke JA (2009) Pesticide use in ornamental production: what are the benefits? Pest Manag Sci 65(4):345–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Coppel HC, Mertins JW (1977) Biological insect pest suppression. Advanced series in agricultural sciences, vol 4. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. Cox PD (2004) Potential for using semiochemicals to protect stored products from insect infestation. J Stored Prod Res 40:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crump NS, Cother EJ, Ash GJ (1999) Clarifying the nomenclature in microbial weed control. Biocontrol Sci Tech 9:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cunningham RT, Kobayashi RM, Miyashita DH (1990) The male lures of tephritid fruit flies. In: Behavior modifying chemicals for insect management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 113–129Google Scholar
  52. Curtis RK, Barnes MM (1977) Oviposition and development of the navel orangeworm in relation to almond maturation. J Econ Entomol 70:395–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Curtis CE, Clark JD (1979) Responses of navel orangeworm moths to attractants evaluated as oviposition stimulants in an almond orchard. Environ Entomol 8:330–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Curtis CF, Lines L, Baolin L, Renz A (1989) Natural and synthetic repellents. In: Curtis CF (ed) Appropriate technology in vector control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 75–92Google Scholar
  55. Dauphin G, Coquillard P, Colazza S, Peri E, Wajnberg E (2009) Host kairomone learning and foraging success in an egg parasitoid: a simulation model. Ecol Entomol 34:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Demir I, Nalcacoglu R, Demirbag Z (2008) The significance of insect viruses in biotechnology. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi 14:193–201Google Scholar
  57. Dent D (2000) Insect pest management. CABI, 432 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Desneux N, Rafalimanana H, Kaiser L (2004) Dose-response relationship in lethal and behavioural effects of different insecticides on the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Chemosphere 54(5):619–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Desneux N, Decourtye A, Delpuech JM (2007) The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol 52:81–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Devendrappa KJ (2005) Nonpesticide methods for controlling diseases and insect pests. In: Ooi, PAC (eds) IPM expert, FAO, Bangkok, pp 81–91Google Scholar
  61. Dhawan AK, Kumar S, Singh S (2009) Effect of insecticide resistance management (irm) strategy on the predatory fauna of cotton ecosystem. Pestic Res J 21:71–74Google Scholar
  62. Dhingra S, Nathala E, Walia S, Parmar BS (2006) Effect of plant origin insect growth regulators on emergence and survival of endoparasitic wasp, Apanteles obliqua (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Entomol Res 30:259–261Google Scholar
  63. Diaz-Montano J, Reese JC, Schapaugh WT, Campbell LR (2006) Characterization of antibiosis and antixenosis to the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in several soybean genotypes. J Econ Entomol 99(5):1884–1889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Diaz-Montano J, Reese JC, Louis J, Campbell LR, Schapaugh WT (2007) Feeding behavior by the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes. J Econ Entomol 100(3):984–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ding W, Shaaya E, Wang JJ, Zhao ZM, Goa F (2002) Acute lethal effect of two insect growth regulators on Liposcelis entomophila (Psocoptera; Liposcellididae). Zool Res 23:173–176Google Scholar
  66. Drum C (1980) Soil chemistry of pesticides, PPG industries, Inc., USAGoogle Scholar
  67. Duraimurugan P, Regupathy K (2005) Push pull strategy with trap crops, neem and nuclear polyhedrosis virus for insecticide resistance management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in cotton. Am J Appl Sci 2:1042–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Edwards OR, Hoy MA (1993) Polymorphism in two parasitoids detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Biol Control Theory Appl Pest Manag 3:243–257Google Scholar
  69. Ehrlich PR, Ehrlich A (1970) Population, resources, environment: issues on human ecology. W.H. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  70. Eilenberg J, Enkegaard A, Vestergaard S, Jensen B (2000) Biocontrol of pests on plant crops in Denmark: present status and future potential. Biocontrol Sci Tech 10:703–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Eilenberg J, Hajek A, Lomer C (2001) Suggestions for unifying the terminology in biological control. BioControl 46:387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ellsworthip P, Martinez CJL (2001) IPM for Bemisia tabaci; a case study from North America. Crop Prot 20(9):853–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Eto M (1990) Biochemical mechanism of insecticidal activities. In: Haug G, Hoffman H (eds) Chemistry of plant protection, vol 6. Springer, pp 65–107Google Scholar
  74. FAO (1967) Year book of forest products. Forest economics branch (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Rome, p 156Google Scholar
  75. Fareed M, Pathak MK, Bihari V, Kamal R, Srivastava AK, Kesavachandran CN (2013) Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India. PLoS One 8(7):e69755.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069755 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ferron P (1978) Biological control of insect pests by entomogenous fungi. Annu Rev Entomol 16:259–263Google Scholar
  77. Frazier JL, Chyb S (1995) Use of feeding inhibitors in insect control. In: RF Chapman G d B (ed) Regulatory mechanisms in insect feeding. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 364–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gahukar RT (2009) Pest management in cotton: strategy and tools of IPM. Int J Agric Sci 5:307–310Google Scholar
  79. Galvan TL, Koch RL, Hutchison WD (2005) Toxicity of commonly used insecticides in sweet corn and soybean to multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J Econ Entomol 98(3):780–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gatehouse JA, Gatehouse AMR (1998) Genetic engineering of plants for insect resistance. In: Rechcigl JE, Rechcigl NA (eds) Biological and biotechnological control of insect pests. Agriculture and environment series. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, pp 211–241Google Scholar
  81. Georgis R, Koppenhofer AM, Lacey LA, Belair G, Duncan LW, Grewal PS, Samish M, Tan L, Torr P, Tol RW, Van HM (2006) Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biol Control 38:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gibson RW, Rice AD, Pickett JA, Smith MC, Sawicki RM (1982) The effects of the repellents dodecanoic acid and polygodial on the acquisition of non-, semiand persistent plant viruses by the aphid Myzus persicae. Ann Appl Biol 100:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gill SS, Cowles EA, Pietrantonio PV (1992) The mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins. Annu Rev Entomol 37:615–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gillespie DR, Quiring DJM (1987) Yellow sticky traps for detecting and monitoring greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults on greenhouse tomato crops. J Econ Entomol 80:675–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Glass EH, Thurston HD (1978) Traditional and modern crop protection in perspective. Bioscience 28(2):109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gӧktay M, Kismali Ş (1990) DiflubenzuronÕun bӧcekler üzerindeki etkisi. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 14:53–64Google Scholar
  87. Grafton-Cardwell EE, Lee JE, Stewart JR, Olsen KD (2006) Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales. J Econ Entomol 99:733–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Green CH, Hall MJR, Fergiani M, Chirico J, Husni M (1993) Attracting adult new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, to odour-baited targets in the field. Med Vet Entomol 7:59–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Griffiths DC, Pickett JA (1980) A potential application of aphid alarm pheromones. Entomol Exp Appl 27:199–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Griffiths DC, Pickett JA (1987) Novel chemicals and their formulation for aphid control. In: Proceedings of international symposium Control Release Bioact. Mater. 14th, pp 1041–46Google Scholar
  91. Griffiths DC, Maniar SP, Merritt LA, Mudd A, Pickett JA, Pye BJ, Smart LE, Wadhams LJ (1991) Laboratory evaluation of pest management strategies combining antifeedants with insect growth regulator insecticides. Crop Prot 10(2):145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gullan PJ, Cranston PS (2010) The insects: an outline of entomology. Wiley, Chichester, p 528Google Scholar
  93. Gullan PJ, Cranston PS (2014) The insects: an outline of entomology. Wiley, Chichester, p 595Google Scholar
  94. Hajek AE (2004) Natural enemies: an introduction to biological control. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hardee DD (1982) Mass trapping and trap cropping of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. In: Kydonieus AF, Beroza M (eds) Insect suppression with controlled release pheromone systems, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 65–71Google Scholar
  96. Harris MO, Foster SP (1995) Behavior and integration. In: Chemical ecology of insects 2. Springer, pp 3–46Google Scholar
  97. Harrison RL, Bonning BC (1998) Genetic engineering of biocontrol agents for insects. In: Rechcigl JE, Rechcigl NA (eds) Biological and biotechnological control of insect. Agriculture and environment series. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, pp 243–280Google Scholar
  98. Hart WG (1972) Compensatory releases of Microterys flavus as a biological control agent against brown soft scale. Environ Entomol 1(4):414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hart WD, Meyerdirk M, Sanchez W, Rhode R (1978) Development of a trap for the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby. South West Entomol 3:219–225Google Scholar
  100. Hatakoshi M, Nakayama I, Riddiford LM (1988) The induction of an imperfect supernumerary larval molt by juvenile-hormone analogs in Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 34:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Heinz KM, Zalom FG (1995) Variation in trichome-based resistance to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) oviposition on tomato. J Econ Entomol 88(5):1494–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hermann R, Moskowitz H, Zlotkin E, Hammock BD (1995) Positive cooperativity among insecticidal scorpion toxins. Toxicon 33:1099–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Herms DA, Mattson WJ (1992) The dilemma of plants – to grow or defend. Q Rev Biol 67(3):283–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Higbee BS, Horton DR, Krysan JL (1995) Reduction of egg hatch in pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae) after contact by adults with insect growth regulators. J Econ Entomol 88:1420–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hill CB, Li Y, Hartman GL (2004) Resistance of Glycine species and various cultivated legumes to the soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 97(3):1071–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hodek I, Ruzicka Z, Sehnal F (1973) Termination of diapause by juvenoids in two species of ladybirds (Coccinellidae). Experientia 29:1146–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hogendorp BK, Cloyd RA, Swiader JM (2006) Effect of nitrogen fertility on reproduction and development of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), feeding on two colors of coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides L. Codd. Environ Entomol 35(2):201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hokkanen MT, Pimentel D (1989) New associations in biological control: theory and practice. Can Entomol 121:829–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hopper KR, Roush RT, Powell W (1993) Management of genetics of biological-control introductions. Annu Rev Entomol 38:27–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Horne P, Page J (2008) Integrated pest management for crops and pastures. Landlinks Press, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoy MA (1996) Novel arthropod biological control agents. In: Persley GJ (ed) Biotechnology and integrated pest management. Biotechnology in agriculture No. 15. CAB International, Wallingford, OX 108 DE, UK., pp 164–185Google Scholar
  112. Hoyt SC, Caltagirone LE (1971) The developing programs of integrated control of pests of apples in Washington and peaches in California. Biol Control:395–421Google Scholar
  113. Huang T (2005) Nonpesticide methods for controlling diseases and insect pests. In: Ooi, PAC (eds) IPM expert, FAO, Bangkok, pp 62–80Google Scholar
  114. Huang X, Renwick JAA (1993) Differential selection of host plants by two Pieris species: the role of oviposition stimulants and deterrents. Entomol Exp Appl 68:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Huang SL, Cheng AH, Chen WS (1999) Cultivation of Muskmelon in Tunnel-shaped Plastic Structure Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station Technical Bulletin No 92, 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  116. Huffaker CB, Simmonds FJ, Laing JE (1976) The theoretical and empirical basis of biological control. In: Huffaker CB, Messenger PS (eds) Theory and practice of biological control. Academic, New York, pp 41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hunter DG (1997) Indigenous crop protection in the Pacific Islands. J South Pacific Agric 3(1&2):21–31Google Scholar
  118. Hunter DG (1998) Pest and disease management, university extension, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji (course book 380 pp. and reader 570 pp)Google Scholar
  119. Hunter DG (2005). Nonpesticide methods for sustainable crop disease management in the Asia-Pacific region: present status, issues and strategies. In: Ooi, PAC (eds) Nonpesticide methods for controlling diseases and insect pests. IPM expert, FAO, Bangkok, pp 24–40Google Scholar
  120. Iiango K, Uthamasamy S (1989) Influence of spacing and fertilizer levels on the incidence of bollworm. Appl Agric Res 4:173–178Google Scholar
  121. Inbar M, Gerling D (2008) Plant-mediated interactions between whiteflies, herbivores, and natural enemies. Annu Rev Entomol 53:431–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ishaaya I, Horowitz AR (1992) Novel phenoxy juvenile hormone analog (pyriproxyfen) suppresses embryogenesis and adult emergence of sweet potato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ Entomol 85:2113–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jamieson MA, Trowbridge AM, Raffa KF, Lindroth RL (2012) Consequences of climate warming and altered precipitation patterns for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol 160(4):1719–1727PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Javer A, Wynne AD, Borden JH, Judd GJR (1987) Pine oil: an oviposition deterrent for the onion maggot, Delia antique (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Can Entomol 119:605–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jermy T (1971) Biological background and outlook of the antifeedant approach to insect control. Acta Phytopathol Acad Sci Hung 6:253–260Google Scholar
  126. Jiang H, Ya H, Hu J, Zhang L, Min J, Yang YH (2008) Advances in application of recombinant insect viruses as biopesticides. Acta Entomol Sin 51:322–327Google Scholar
  127. Jones GA, Sieving KE, Jacobson SK (2005) Avian diversity and functional insectivory on North-Central Florida farmlands. Conserv Biol 19:1234–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Keneth M (1992) The DDT story. The British Crop Protection Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Kennedy JS (1978) The concepts of olfactory “arrestment” and “attraction”. Physiol Entomol 3:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kennedy GG (2003) Tomato, pests, parasitoids, and predators: tritrophic interactions involving the genus Lycopersicon. Annu Rev Entomol 48:51–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kennedy GG, Barbour JD (1992) Resistance variation in natural and managed systems. In: Fritz RS, Simms EL (eds) Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 13–41. ISBN:0226265536Google Scholar
  132. Kennedy GG, Sorenson CF (1985) Role of glandular trichomes in the resistance of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum to Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 78(3):547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Khaliq A (2005) Pakistan. In: Peter ACO (ed) Non-pesticide methods for controlling diseases and insect pests, Asian Productivity Organization, 1- 2-10 Hirakawacho, Chiyoda-ku, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  134. Kismali Ş, Erkin E (1984) Juvenil hormon analoglarinin bazi yararli boceklerin gelismesi uzerine etkileri. II. Coccinella septempunctata L. nin larva gelismesi uzerine etkisi. Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 8:231–236Google Scholar
  135. Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang S (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94(11):1259–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Koçak E, Kilinçer N (1997) Juvenil hormon analogue methopren in pamuk yaprak kurdu (Spodoptera littoralis) Boist. (Lep.: Noctuidae) na etkileri: I. pupa ve yumurta etkiler. Bitki Kor Bult 37:163–172Google Scholar
  137. Kogan M (1998) Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Annu Rev Entomol 43:243–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kohnle U, Densborn S, Duhme D, Vité JP (1992) Bark beetle attack on host logs reduced by spraying with repellents. J Appl Entomol 114:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kolodny-Hirsch, D.M., Schwalbe, C.P., 1990. Use of disparlure in the management of the gypsy moth. Behavior-modifying chemicals for insect management. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 363–385Google Scholar
  140. Koreen R, Teresa C, Richard M, Twyman HQ, Christou P (2009) Calling the tunes on transgenic crops: the case for regulatory harmony. Mol Breed 23:99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Koyama J, Teruya T, Tanaka K (1984) Eradication of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Okinawa islands by a male annihilation method. J Econ Entomol 77:468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Krischik VA, Landmark AL, Heimpel GE (2007) Soil-applied imidacloprid is translocated to nectar and kills nectar-feeding Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Environ Entomol 36(5):1238–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Krishnamurthy PK, Krishnakumar NK (1997) Integrated management in horticultural systems. In: Pest management in horticultural systems. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, pp 82–97Google Scholar
  144. Omkar, Kumar B (2016) Biocontrol of insect pests. In: Omkar (ed) Ecofriendly pest management for food security. Academic (Elsevier), Amsterdam, 25–61 ppGoogle Scholar
  145. Kumar S, Vasuda G, Khan MA (2004) Biological control: a potential weapon in agriculture. Indian Farming:39–44Google Scholar
  146. Kunalasiri A, Bukaew S (2000) Growers opinions on the socio-economic aspect of Bt-cotton resistant to bollworm. Biosafety Report on Field Testing on NuCOTN 33B Bt Cotton, pp 93–98Google Scholar
  147. Lacey LA, Goettel MS (1995) Current developments in microbial control of insect pests and prospects for the early 21st century. Entomophaga 40(1):3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ladd TL, Klein MG, Tumlinson JH (1981) Phenethyl propionate Ceugenol Cgeraniol (3:7:3) and Japonilure: a highly effective joint lure for Japanese beetles. J Econ Entomol 74:665–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lal R, Rohilla HR (2007) Insect pests of pulses and their management. Natl J Plant Improv 9:67–81Google Scholar
  150. Lanier GN (1990). Principles of attraction-annihilation: mass trapping and other means. In: Behavior modifying chemicals for insect pest management: applications of pheromones and other attractants, pp 25–45Google Scholar
  151. Lester EE (2006) Perspective integrated pest management (IPM): definition, historical development and implementation, and the other IPM. Pest Manag Sci 62:787–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lingappa S (2001) Tools for the management of Helicoverpa in cotton. National Seminar on sustainable cotton production to meet the requirement of industry, 3–4 October 2001 at MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  153. Lingren PD, Ridgway RL (1967) Toxicity of five insecticides to several insect predators. J Econ Entomol 60(6):1639–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Luckmann WH, Metcalf RL (1994) The pest management concept. In: Metcalf RL, Luckmann WH (eds) Introduction to insect pest management. Wiley, New York, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  155. Makaka C (2008) The efficacy of two isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschin) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against the adults of the black maize beetle Heteronychus licas Klug (Coleoptera: Scarabidae) under laboratory conditions. Afr J Agric Res 3:259–265Google Scholar
  156. Malhi CS, Kaur A (2006) Evaluating potential of the common myna, Acridotheres tristis, for insect pest management. Integrated Pest Control 48:136–139Google Scholar
  157. Martin H (1968) Pesticides manual. British Crop Protection Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  158. Mattson WJ (1980) Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 11:119–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. McClure MS (1977) Resurgence of the scale, Fiorinia externa (Homoptera: Diaspididae), on hemlock following insecticide application. Environ Entomol 6(3):480–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. McNeil J (1975) Juvenile hormone analogs: detrimental effects on the development of an endoparasitoid. Science 189:640–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Meineke EK, Dunn RR, Sexton JO, Frank SD (2013) Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees. PLoS One 8(3):e59687PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Metcalf RL, Ferguson JE, Lampan R, Andersen JF (1987) Dry cucurbitacin-containing baits for controlling diabroticite beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 80:870–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Meyerdirk DE, Oldfield GN (1985) Evaluation of trap colour and height placement for monitoring Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Can Entomol 117:505–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Miller JR (1986) Cull onions as a trap crop for onion maggot. Funded Proposal of USDA CRGO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  165. Miller LK (1995) Genetically engineered insect virus pesticides: present and future. J Invertebr Pathol 65:211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Miller JR, Cowles RS (1990) Stimulo-deterrent diversion: a concept and its possible application to onion maggot control. J Chem Ecol 16:3197–3112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mills NJ, Daane KM (2005) Nonpesticidal alternatives can suppress crop pests. Calif Agric 59(1):23–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Minks AK, Cardé RT (1988) Disruption of pheromone communication in moths: is the natural blend really most efficacious? Entomol Exp Appl 49:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Misof B, Liu S, Meusemann K, Peters RS, Donath A, Mayer C, Niehuis O (2014) Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science 346(6210):763–767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Miura T, Takahashi RM (1974) Insect development inhibitors; effects of candidate mosquito control agents on non-target aquatic organism. Environ Entomol 3:631–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Miyamoto J, Hirano M, Takimoto Y, Hatakoshi M (1993) Insect growth regulators for pest control, with emphasis on juvenile hormone analogs: present status and future prospects. ACS symposium series. ACS, Washington, DC 524, pp 144–168Google Scholar
  172. Moffit HR, Westigard PH, Mantey KD, Van DeBaan HE (1988) Resistance to diflubenzuron in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J Econ Entomol 81:1511–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Mordue-Luntz AJ, Blackwell A (1993) Azadirachtin: an update. J Insect Physiol 39:903–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Moser SE, Obrycki JJ (2009) Non-target effects of neonicotinoid seed treatments; mortality of coccinellid larvae related to zoophytophagy. Biol Control 51(3):487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Muir P (2002) The history of pesticides use. Oregon State University Press, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  176. Naranjo SE, Ellsworth PC, Frisvold GB (2015) Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. Annu Rev Entomol 60:621–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Natarajan K, Sheshadri V (1988) Abundance of natural enemies of cotton insects under intercropping systems. J Biol Control 2:3–5Google Scholar
  178. National Research Council (2010) Advancing the science of climate change. The National Academies Press, Washington, p 526Google Scholar
  179. Naved S, Trivedi TP, Singh J, Sardana HR, Dhandapani A, Bhosle BB, Gawas VR (2008) Development and promotion of IPM package in rainfed Bt. and non-Bt. cotton cropping system – a case study-II. Pestic Res J 20:43–47Google Scholar
  180. Neale M (2000) The regulation of natural products as crop-protection agents. Pest Manag Sci 56:677–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Needham J (1956) Science and civilisation in China. II. History of scientific thought. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  182. Needham J (1986) Science and civilisation in China. VI. I. Botany. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  183. Nelson GC, Valin H, Sands RD, Havlík P, Ahammad H, Deryng D, Elliott J, Fujimori S, Hasegawa T, Heyhoe E, Kyle P (2014) Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(9):3274–3279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nijholt WW, McMullen LH, Safranyik L (1981) Pine oil protects living trees from attack by three bark beetle species, Dendroctonus spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Can Entomol 113:337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Nimmo DR, Hamaker TL, Moore JC, Wood RA (1980) Acute and chronic effects of Dimilin on survival and reproduction of Mysidopsis bahia. In: Aquatic toxicology. ASTM International, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  186. Nisbet AJ, Woodford JAT, Strang RH, Connolly JD (1993) Systemic antifeedant effects of azadirachtin on the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. Entomol Exp Appl 68:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Nordlund DA (1981) Semiochemicals: a review of the terminology. In: Nordlund DA, Jones RL, Lewis WJ (eds) Semiochemicals: their role in pest control. Wiley, Chichester, 13–28 ppGoogle Scholar
  188. Norland RL, Mulla MS (1975) Impact of altosid on selected member of an aquatic ecosystem. Environ Entomol 4:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Oerke EC (2006) Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci 144(1):31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Othmer K (1996) Encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  191. Painter RH (1951) Insect resistance in crop plants. The MacMillan Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  192. Papachristos DP, Milonas PG (2008) Adverse effects of soil applied insecticides on the predatory coccinellid Hippodamia undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol Control 47(1):77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Pathak MK, Fareed M, Bihari V, Mathur N, Srivastava AK, Kuddus M, Nair KC (2011) Cholinesterase levels and morbidity in pesticide sprayers in North India. Occup Med 61(7):512–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Pathak MK, Fareed M, Srivastava AK, Pangtey BS, Bihari V, Kuddus M, Kesavachandran C (2013) Seasonal variations in cholinesterase activity, nerve conduction velocity and lung function among sprayers exposed to mixture of pesticides. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(10):7296–7300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pawar AD (2004) Biological control of crop pests and weeds and integrated pest management. Plant Prot Bull 56:1–5Google Scholar
  196. Pedigo LP, Rice ME (2014) Entomology and pest management, 6th edn. Waveland Press, Long Grove, 784 ppGoogle Scholar
  197. Penman DR, Chapman RB (1983) Fenvalerate-induced distributional imbalances of 2-spotted spider-mite on bean plants. Entomol Exp Appl 33(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Penman DR, Chapman RB (1988) Pesticide-induced mite outbreaks: pyrethroids and spider mites. Exp Appl Acarol 4:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Perlak FJ, Fuchs RL, Dean DA, McPherson SL, Fischhoff DA (1991) Modifications of the coding sequence enhances plant expression of insect control protein genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:3324–3328PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Pickens LG (1995) Baited fly traps—1900 to 1995. IPM Practice 17:1–6Google Scholar
  201. Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM, Hardie J (1992) The chemical ecology of aphids. Annu Rev Entomol 37:67–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Pimentel D (2005) Environmental and economic costs of the application of pesticides primarily in the United States. Environ Dev Sustain 7(2):229–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Powell KS, Gatehouse AMR, Hilder VA, Gatehouse JA (1993) Antimetabolic effects of plant lectins and fungal enzymes on the nymphal stages of two important rice pests, Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix cinciteps. Entomol Exp Appl 66:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Presnail JK, Hoy MA (1992) Stable genetic transformation of a beneficial arthropod, Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), by a microinjection technique. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:7732–7736PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Prokopy RJ, Lewis WJ (1992) Application of learning to pest management. In: Papaj DR, Lewis AC (eds) Insect learning: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 308–342Google Scholar
  206. Prokopy RJ, Bergweiler C, Galarza L, Schwerin J (1994) Prior experience affects the visual ability of Rhagoletis pomonella flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to find host fruit. J Insect Behav 7:663–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Puri SN (1998) Non pesticidal management of Helicoverpa armigera on cotton and pigeon-pea. National Center for Integrated Pest Management, Pusa, pp 79–89Google Scholar
  208. Purwar JP, Sachan GC (2006) Insect pest management through entomogenous fungi: a review. J Appl Biosci 32:1–26Google Scholar
  209. Pyke B, Rice M, Sabine B, Zalucki MP (1987) The push-pull strategy-behavioural control of Heliothis. Aust Cotton Grow 9(1):7–9Google Scholar
  210. Rabindra RJ, Ramanujam B (2007) Microbial control of sucking pests using entamopathogenic fungi. J Biol Control 21:21–28Google Scholar
  211. Rachel C (1962) Silent spring. Houghton Mifflin Publish, USAGoogle Scholar
  212. Ragsdale DW, Landis DA, Brodeur J, Heimpel GE, Desneux N (2011) Ecology and management of the soybean aphid in North America. Annu Rev Entomol 56:375–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rajendran TP, Singh D (2016) Insects and pests. In: Omkar (ed) Ecofriendly pest management for food security. Academic (Elsevier), Amsterdam, 1–24 ppGoogle Scholar
  214. Rana ZA, Ibrar-ul-Haq, Malik NA, Akhtar AS (2007) Effect of trash mulching and Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) on sugarcane borers infestation. J Agric Res (Lahore) 45:161–164Google Scholar
  215. Rao NV (1994) Integrated Management of Helicoverpa armigera Hub. on Major Crops. Research and Advisory Council meeting, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, 24 November 1994, Hyderabad, p 30Google Scholar
  216. Rao PN (2007) Botanicals and their role in insect pest management. In: Prasad D (ed) Sustainable pest management, pp 451–467Google Scholar
  217. Rao PN (2009) Proceeding of international conference on “advances in biosciences: from Darwin to Dolly and beyond” held at Nanded, Maharashtra during February, 12–14Google Scholar
  218. Rao PN, Kumar KP (2006) Whitefly management in cotton agro ecosystem with botanicals pesticides: an eco friendly approach. J Ecophysiol Occup Health 6:57–60Google Scholar
  219. Rao PN, Tanweer A (2011) Concepts and components of integrated pest management. Pests and Pathogens: Management Strategies 543Google Scholar
  220. Rasnitsyn AP, Quicke DLJ (2002) History of insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 517 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Raupp MJ, Holmes JJ, Sadof C, Shrewsbury P, Davidson JA (2001) Effects of cover sprays and residual pesticides on scale insects and natural enemies in urban forests. J Arboric 27(4):203–214Google Scholar
  222. Raupp MJ, Shrewsbury PM, Herms DA (2010) Ecology of herbivorous arthropods in urban landscapes. Annu Rev Entomol 55:19–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Rebek EJ, Sadof CS (2003) Effects of pesticide applications on the euonymus scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid, Encarsia citrina (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). J Econ Entomol 96(2):446–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Rebek EJ, Steven DF, Royer TA, Bogran CE (2012) Alternatives to chemical control of insect pests. In: Soloneski S (ed) Insecticides-basic and other applications. In Tech, Rijeka, pp 171–196Google Scholar
  225. Reid BL, Brock VL, Bennett GW (1994) Development, morphogenetic and reproductive effects of four polycyclic nonisoprenoid juvenoids in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J Entomol Sci 29:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Remor AP, Totti CC, Moteira DA, Dutra GP, Heuser VD, Boeira JM (2009) Occupational exposure of farm workers to pesticides: biochemical parameters and evaluation of genotoxicity. Environ Int 35:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Renwick JAA (1990) Oviposition stimulants and deterrents. In: Morgan ED, Mandava NB (eds) CRC handbook of natural pesticides, vol 4, insect attractants and repellents. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 151–180Google Scholar
  228. Riba M, Marti J, Sans A (2003) Influence of Azadirachtin on development of reproduction of Nezara viridula L. (Het., Pentotomidae). J Appl Entomol 127:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Richards OW, Davies RG (1977) Imms’ general textbook of entomology: volume I. Springer, 418 ppGoogle Scholar
  230. Riddiford LM, Truman JW (1978) Biochemistry of insect hormones and insect growth regulators. In: Rockstein M (ed) Biochemistry of insects. Academy, New York, pp 307–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Ridgway RL, Silverstein RM, Inscoe MN (1990) Behavior-modifying chemicals for insect pest management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  232. Riedl H, Walston AT, Dong K, Soon Brooks DJ (2007) Biological control in pear orchards under seasonal pest management programs with and without organophosphate insecticides. Bull OILB/SROP 30:1–8Google Scholar
  233. Robinson GE, Ratnieks FLW (1987) Induction of premature honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) flight by juvenile hormone analogs administered orally or topically. J Econ Entomol 80:784–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Roy HE, Cottrell TE (2008) Forgotten natural enemies: interactions between coccinellids and insect-parasitic fungi. Eur J Entomol 105:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Saba H, Vibhash D, Manisha M, Prashant KS, Farhan H, Tauseef A (2012) Trichoderma-a promising plant growth stimulator and biocontrol agent. Mycosphere 3(4):524–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Sakuma M, Fukami H (1990) Dose/response relations in taxes of nymphs of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) to their aggregation pheromone. Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 25:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sandhu SS, Sharma AK, Beniwal V, Goel G, Batra P, Kumar A, Jaglan S, Sharma AK, Malhotra S (2012) Myco-biocontrol of insect pests: factors involved, mechanism, and regulation. J Pathogens.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/126819. Article ID 126819 (10 pages)
  238. Satish L (1996) Influence of moisture conservation techniques on Microphomina phaseolina population dry root rot and yield of cluster beans. Indian Phytopathol 49(4):342–349Google Scholar
  239. Saxena S, Pandey AK (2001) Microbial metabolites as eco-friendly agrochemicals for the next millennium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55:395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Sepulveda-Cano PA, Lopez-Nunez JC, Soto-Giraldo A (2008) Effect of two entomopathogenic nematodes on Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae). Rev Colomb Entomol 34:62–67Google Scholar
  241. Shanmugam PS, Balagurunathan R, Sathiah N (2006) Bio-intensive integrated pest management for Bt. cotton. Int J Zool Res 2:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Siddall JB (1976) Insect growth regulators and insect control: a critical appraisal. Environ Health Perspect 14:119–126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Siegel JP (2001) The mammalian safety of bacillus thuringiensis—based insecticides. J Invertebr Pathol 77:13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Simmons AT, Gurr GM (2005) Trichomes of Lycopersicon species and their hybrids: effects on pests and natural enemies. Agric Entomol 7(4):265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Singh SP (2004) Some success stories in classical biological control of agricultural pests in India. Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, Bangkok, p 73Google Scholar
  246. Singh K (2014) Biocontrol: an overview. Int J Sci Innov Res 2(1):83–89Google Scholar
  247. Smart LE, Blight MM, Pickett JA, Pye BJ (1994) Development of field strategies incorporating semiochemicals for the control of the pea and bean weevil, Sitona lineatus L. Crop Prot 13:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Smith CA (1995) Searching for safe methods of flea control. J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:1137–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Smith RF, Allen WW (1954) Insect control and balance of nature. Sci Am 190:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Smith RF, Renold HT (1966) Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. In: Proceedings of FAO symposium on integrated pest control, Rome 1, pp 11–17Google Scholar
  251. Smith RF, Mittler TE, Smith CN (1973) History of entomology. Annual Reviews Inc, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  252. Sparks TC (2013) Insecticide discovery: an evaluation and analysis. Pestic Biochem Physiol 107:8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Spencer JL, Hibbard BE, Moeser J, Onstad DW (2009) Behaviour and ecology of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). Agric For Entomol 11(1):9–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Srivastava KP (2004) A textbook of applied entomology. Methods of insect pest control, vol I. Kalayani Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  255. St. Leger RJ, Joshi L, Bidochka MJ, Roberts DW (1996) Construction of an improved mycoinsecticide overexpressing of toxin protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:6349PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Steiner LF, Hart WG, Harris EJ, Cunningham RT, Ohinata K, Kamakahi DC (1970) Eradication of the oriental fruit fly from the Mariana islands by the methods of male annihilation and sterile insect release. J Econ Entomol 63:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Suckling DM, Karg G (1998) Pheromones and other semiochemicals. In: Rechcigl JE, Rechcigl NA (eds) Biological and biotechnological control of insect pests. Agriculture and environment series. CRC Press LLC, 63–99 ppGoogle Scholar
  258. Sukprakarn C, Bhudhasamai K, Chankaewmanee B (1997) Trial on storing of corn seed in airtight storage, biennial report 1996–1997. Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, pp 91–92Google Scholar
  259. Swapna N (1995) Certain studies of insecticide resistance in insects of human significance. Ph.D. thesis, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 146 ppGoogle Scholar
  260. Szczepaniec A, Creary SF, Laskowski KL, Nyrop JP, Raupp MJ (2011) Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes. PLoS One 6(5):e20018PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Throne JE, Baker JE, Messina FJ, Kramer KJ, Howard JA (2000) Varietal resistance. In: Subramanyam B, Hagstrum DW (eds) Alternatives to pesticides in stored-product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, pp 165–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Thurston HD (1992) Sustainable practices for plant disease management in traditional farming systems. Westview Press, Boulder, p 279Google Scholar
  263. Treacy MF (1999) Recombinant baculoviruses. In: Hall FR, Menn JJ (eds) Biopesticides use and delivery. Methods in biotechnology No.5. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, 321–340 ppGoogle Scholar
  264. Trematerra P (1989) Survey of pheromone uses in stored-products pest control. Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie 76:129–142Google Scholar
  265. Trematerra P, Battaini F (1987) Control of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller by masstrapping. J Appl Entomol 104:336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Tunaz H, Uygun N (2004) Insect growth regulators for insect pest control. Turk J Agric For 28(6):377–387Google Scholar
  267. Unnithan GC, Saxena KN (1990) Diversion of oviposition by Atherigona soccata (Diptera: Muscidae) to nonhost maize with sorghum seedling extract. Environ Entomol 19:1432–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Ushio SK, Yoshioka K, Nasuku K, Waki K (1982) Eradication of the oriental fruit fly from Amami Islands by male annihilation (Diptera: Tephritidae). Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 26:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Van Driesche RG, Bellows TS (1995) Biological control. Chapman and Hall, New York, p 539Google Scholar
  270. van Lenteren JC (2000) A greenhouse without pesticides: fact of fantasy? Crop Prot 19:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. van Lenteren JC (2005) Early entomology and the discovery of insect parasitoids. Biol Control 32:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. van Lenteren JC (2008) IOBC Internet Book of Biological Control, Version 5. www.IOBC-Global.org
  273. Vincent C, Hallman G, Panneton B, Fleurat-Lessard F (2003) Management of agricultural insects with physical control methods. Annu Rev Entomol 48:261–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Vincent C, Weintraub P, Hallman G (2009) Physical control of insect pests. In: Resh VH, Cardé RT (eds) Encyclopedia of insects, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 794–798. ISBN:9780123741448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Walker TJ (1988) Acoustic traps for agriculturally important insects. Fla Entomol 71:484–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Wall CL (1990) Principles of monitoring. In: Ridgway RL, Silverstein RM, Inscoe MN (eds) Behavior-modifying chemicals for pest management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 9–23Google Scholar
  277. Wang DN, Wang HL (1995) Control of papaya Ringspot virus by using Screenhouse cultivation in Taiwan. In: Proceedings of international symposium on integrated management of insect-borne virus diseases of tropical fruits, p 26 (Abstract), TaichungGoogle Scholar
  278. Weinzierl RA (1998) Botanical insecticides, soaps, and oils. In: Rechcigl JE, Rechcigl NA (eds) Biological and biotechnological control of insect pests. Agriculture and environment series. CRC Press LLC. 101–122 ppGoogle Scholar
  279. Wells SA, Immaraju J, Ruggero WS, Nelson R (1993) Align, a new insect growth regulator that shows potential for control of cotton pests. In: Proceedings of Beltwide cotton conference, Memphis, TN 1, pp 43–44Google Scholar
  280. Whipps JM, Sreenivasaprasad S, Muthumeenakshi S, Rogers CW, Challen MP (2008) Use of Coniothyrium minitans as a biocontrol agent and some molecular aspects of sclerotial mycoparasitism. Eur J Plant Pathol 121:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wittstock U, Agerbirk N, Stauber EJ, Olsen CE, Hippler M, Mitchell-Olds T, Gershenzon J, Vogel H (2004) Successful herbivore attack due to metabolic diversion of a plant chemical defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:4859–4864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Yamamoto T (2001) One hundred years of Bacillus thuringiensis research and development: discovery to transgenic crops. J Insect Biotechnol Sericology 70(1):1–23Google Scholar
  283. Yang CY, Jung JK, Han KS, Boo KS, Yiem MS (2002) Sex pheromone composition and monitoring of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Naju pear orchards. J Asia Pac Entomol 5:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Yano E (2005) Biological control of vegetable pests with natural enemies. In: Nonpesticide methods for controlling diseases and insect pests. In: Ooi, PAC (eds) IPM expert, FAO, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 41–47Google Scholar
  285. Yano E (2008) Recent progress in IPM and biological control in Japan. Bull OILB/SROP 32:261–264Google Scholar
  286. Zacharia JT (2011) Ecological effects of pesticides, pesticides in the modern world – risks and benefits. In: Dr. Margarita Stoytcheva (ed) ISBN:978-953-307-458-0. InTech. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-risks-and-benefits/ecological-effects-ofpesticides
  287. Zalucki MP, Adamson D, Furlong MJ (2009) The future of IPM: whither or wither? Aust J Entomol 48(2):85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Zhang Y, Qu LJ, Wang YZ (2007) Using virus to restore and construct table forest ecosystem for pest insects control. Chin For Sci Technol 6:53–61Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhupendra Kumar
    • 1
  • Omkar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Ladybird Research Laboratory, Department of ZoologyUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations