Advertisement

Aphids

  • S. Chakrabarti
Chapter

Abstract

Aphids belong to the superfamily Aphidoidea and family Aphididae of the order Hemiptera. These are plant-sucking bugs. These insects are considered as an important group of pests of agricultural, horticultural and forest plants. Many species infest herbaceous crops and also the wild plants. Aphids exhibit cyclical parthenogenesis along with sexual reproduction, host alternation and extreme polymorphism that make their biology complicated. In this chapter, morphological structures with their variations in aphids, general biology, life history pattern, polymorphism and functions of different morphs have been discussed precisely. Accounts of different species of aphids found on several economical plants and their vectorial role in India have also been provided.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, for providing Emeritus Fellowship during the period of preparation of this chapter. Thanks are also due to the principal of Vidyasagar College, Kolkata, for providing infrastructural facilities for work.

References

  1. Ali S, Kadian MS, Akhtar M, Arya S, Chandla VK, Govindakrishnan P, Singh BP (2013) Potato virus-vector aphid epidemiology in Northeastern hills of India. Natl Acad Sci Lett 38(2):139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoki S (1979) Further observations on Astegopteryx styracicola (Homoptera: Hormaphididae), an aphid species with soldiers biting man. Kontyu 47(2):99–104Google Scholar
  3. Aoki S (1980) Occurrence of simple labour in a gall aphid, Pemphigus dorocola (Homoptera, Aphididae). Kontyu 48(1):71–73Google Scholar
  4. Aoki S, Makino S (1982) Gall usurpation and lethal fighting among fundatrices of aphid Epipemphigus niisimae (Homoptera, Pemphigidae). Kontyu 50(3):365–376Google Scholar
  5. Aoki S, Kurosu U (2010) A review of the biology of Cerataphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae), Focusing mainly on their life cycles, gall formation, and soldiers. Proc Zool Soc, Kolkata 2010:1–34Google Scholar
  6. Aoki S, Yamane S, Kiuchi M (1977) On the biters of Astegopteryx styracicola (Homoptera, Aphidoidea). Kontyu 45(4):563–570Google Scholar
  7. Bhatnagar A, Somani AK, Chander S (2012) Building of Myzus persicae and development of mosaic on potato in central India. Potato J 39(2):208–212Google Scholar
  8. Blackman RL (1974) Invertebrate types- aphids. Ginn & Companay, London, p 175Google Scholar
  9. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (1984) Aphids on the World’s crops: an identification and information guide. Willey, Chichester, p 432Google Scholar
  10. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (1994) Aphids on the World’s trees. CAB International, Wallingford, p 987Google Scholar
  11. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (2006) Aphids on the World’s herbaceous plants and shrubs, vol I & II. John Willey & Sons/The Natural History Museum, London, p 1439Google Scholar
  12. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (2007) Taxonomic issues. In: Emden V, Harrington (eds) Aphids as Crop pest. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  13. Borner C (1952) Europe centralis aphides. Mitt Thur Bot Ges 3:1–488Google Scholar
  14. Borner C, Heinze K (1957) Aphidina- Aphidoidea. In: Souauer P, Parey P (eds) Handbook der Pflanzenkrankheitn, vol 5. BD, Berlin, p 402Google Scholar
  15. Chakrabarti S (1987) Biosystematics of gall aphids (Aphididae, Homoptera) of Western Himalaya, India. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Animal Sci) 96(5):561–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakrabarti S (2007) Diversity and biosystematics of gall inducing aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their galls in the Himalaya. Orient Insects 41:35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chakrabarti S (2009) Diversity, distribution and endemism of aphids (Hemiptera) in Indian subregion of oriental realm. Redia 42:78–85Google Scholar
  18. Chakrabarti S, Ghosh AK (1970) On the rose infesting aphids (Insecta: Homoptera) in India. Ind J Hort 27(3–4):226–232Google Scholar
  19. Chakrabarti S, Sarkar A (2001) A supplement to the food- plant catalogue of Indian Aphididae (Homoptera). J Aphidol 15:9–62Google Scholar
  20. Chakrabarti S, Mondal AK, Saha S (1987) Key to the Indian species of Periphyllus including four new species and hitherto unknown morphs from north-west Himalaya. Syst Entomol 12:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chan CK, Forbes, AR, Raworth (1991) Aphid transmitted viruses and their vectors of the world. `Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Technical Bulletin, 191-3E, p 216Google Scholar
  22. Dabholkar AR (2006) General plant breeding. Concept Publishing Campus, New Delhi, p 487Google Scholar
  23. Dixon AFG (1998) Aphid ecology – an optimization approach, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, p 157Google Scholar
  24. Dixon AFG, Wellings SD (1982) Seasonality in reproduction in aphids. Int J inv Reprod 5:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eastop VF (1966) A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea (Homoptera). Aust J Zool 14:399–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eastop VF (1977) Worldwide importance of aphids as virus vector. In: Harris KF, Maramorosch (eds) Aphids as virus vectors. Academic, London, pp 3–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Essig EO, Abernathy F (1952) The aphid genus Periphyllus – a systematic, biological and ecological studies. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 166Google Scholar
  28. Foottit RG, Richards WR (1993) The genera of the aphids of Canada. Homoptera: Aphidoidea and Phylloxeridae. Insects Arachnids Can Part 22:8–32Google Scholar
  29. Forrest JMS (1987) Galling aphids. In: Mink AK, Harrewinkjn P (eds) Aphids – their biology, natural enemies and control Vol.- A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 341–353Google Scholar
  30. Ghosh AK (1974) Aphids (Homoptera: Insecta) of economic importance in India. Indian Agric 18(2):81–214Google Scholar
  31. Ghosh A, Das A, Lepcha R, Mazumdar K, Barnwal VK (2015) Identification and distribution of aphid vectors spreading citrus Tristeza virus in Darjeeling hills and Dooars of India. J Asia Pac Entmol 18(3):601–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ghosh A, Chakrabarti S, Mandal B, Krishna Kumar NK (2017) Aphids as vectors of the plant viruses in India. In: Mandal B, Rao G, Baranwal V, Jain R (eds) A century of plant virology in India. Springer, Singapore, pp 515–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris KF (1977) An ingestion-e. In gation hypothesis of noncirculative of virus transmission. In: Harris KF, Maramorosch (eds) Aphids as virus vectors. Academic Press, London, pp 165–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heie O (1967) Studies on fossil aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea), especially in the Copenhagen collection of fossils in Baltic amber. Spolia Zool. Muei Hauniensis 26:1–274Google Scholar
  35. Heie O (1980) The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark-I. Fauna Entomol Scand 9:1–236Google Scholar
  36. Heie O, Wegierck P (1998) N Mus. (entomology), 8-9A list of fossil aphids. Ann Upp Silesian Mus (Entomol) 8-9:159–192Google Scholar
  37. Heie O, Wegierck P (2009) A classification of the Aphidomorpha (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) under consideration of the fossil taxa. Redia 42:69–77Google Scholar
  38. Hille Ris Lambers D (1966a) Higher categories of the Aphididae. Seminar on current status of research in aphids. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  39. Hille Ris Lambers D (1966b) Polymorphism in Aphididae. Annu Rev Entomol 11:47–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holman J (2009) Host plant catalog of aphids- Palaearctic region. Springer, Berlin, pp 1218. http://aphid.speciesfile.org. Accessed Aug 2016
  41. Kennedy JS, Day NF, Eastop VF (1962) A conspectus of aphids as vectors of plant viruses. Commenweath Institute of Entomology, London, p 144Google Scholar
  42. Lees AD (1959) The role of photoperiod and temperature in the determination of parthenogenetic and sexual forms in the aphid Megoura vicinae Buckton I. The influence of these factors on apterous virginoparae and their progeny. J Insect Physiol 3:92–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miyazaki M (1987) Forms and morphs of aphids. In: Mink AK, Harrewinkjn P (eds) Aphids- Their biology, natural enemies and control Vol.- A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 27–50Google Scholar
  44. Moran NA (1992) The evolution of aphid life cycle. Annu Rev Entomol 37:321–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nieto Nafria JM, Durante MP, Remaudiere G (1998) Les noms des taxa du groupe-famillle chez les Aphididae (Hemiptera). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (N.S.) 19:77–92Google Scholar
  46. Nieto Nafria JM, Favret C, Akimoto S, Barbagallo S, Chakrabarti S, Mier Durante MP, Miller GL, Qiao G-x, Sano M, Hidalgo NP, Stekolshchikov AV, Wegierek P (2011) Register of genus-group taxa of Aphidoidea. In: Nafria N, Favret C (eds) Registers of family-group and genus- group taxa of Aphidoidea. University of Leon, Leon, pp 21–404Google Scholar
  47. Patch EM (1938) Food – plant catalogue of aphids of the world including the Phylloxeridae. Maine Agr Exp Stn Bull 393:36–431Google Scholar
  48. Quednau W (2010) Atlas of the Drepanosiphine aphids of the world part III. Mem Am Entomol Inst 83:1–361Google Scholar
  49. Quednau W, Remaudiere G (1994) Le genere sudamericain Neuquenaphis E. E. Blanchard, description de deux nouvelles especes et definition de nouvelles sousfamilies d’Aphididae (Homoptera). Bull Soc Entomol Fr 99:365–384Google Scholar
  50. Raychaudhuri DN (ed) (1980) Aphids of north-east India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society, Calcutta, p 521Google Scholar
  51. Raychaudhuri DN (ed) (1983) Food – plant catalogue of Indian Aphididae. Aphidological Society of India, Calcutta, p 188Google Scholar
  52. Raychaudhuri DN, Ghosh MR (1980) Introduction. In: Raychaudhuri DN (ed) Aphids of north-east India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society, Calcutta, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  53. Remaudiere G, Remaudiere M (1997) Catalogue des Aphididae du monde of the World’s Aphididae (Homoptera, Aphidoidea). INRA, Paris, p 473Google Scholar
  54. Remaudiere G, Stroyan HLG (1984) Un Tamalia nouveau de Californie (USA) discussion sur les Tamalinae Subfamilae nov. (Hom.: Aphididae). Ann Entomol Soc Fr (NS) 20(1):93–103Google Scholar
  55. Sarkar S, Chakrabarti S (2015) Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) diversity on the fruit plant yielding plants in India’ J. Appl Biosci 41:86–109Google Scholar
  56. Sylvester ES (1989) Viruses transmitted by aphids. In: Mink AK, Harrewinkjn P (eds) Aphids – Their biology, natural enemies and control Vol.-2C. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 65–89Google Scholar
  57. Tomiuk J, Loeschke V, Schneiter M (1994) On the origin of polyploid parthenogenetic races in weevil Podruaua mollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Theor Biol 167:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Uppal BN, Verma PM, Capoor SP (1945) A mosaic disease of cardamom. Curr Sci 14:208–209Google Scholar
  59. van Emden HF, Harrington R (eds) (2007) Aphids as crop pests. CAB International, Wallingford, p 717Google Scholar
  60. von Dohlen CD, Moran NA (2000) Molecular data support a rapid radiation of aphids in the cretaceous and multiple origins of host alternation. Biol J Linn Soc 71:689–717Google Scholar
  61. Williams IS, Dixon (2007) Life cycle and polymorphism. In: van Emden, Harrington (eds) Aphids as crop pests. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wojciechowski W (1992) Studies on the systematic system of aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea). Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice, pp 1–74Google Scholar
  63. Wool D (2004) Galling aphids: Specialization, biological complexity and variation. Annu Rev Entomol 49:175–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Chakrabarti
    • 1
  1. 1.Post-Graduate Department of ZoologyVidyasagar CollegeKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations