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Pests of Apple

  • Akhtar Ali Khan
  • Abdul Rouf Wani
  • Farooq Ahmad Zaki
  • R. K. Nehru
  • S. S. Pathania
Chapter

Abstract

Apple is a commercially important fruit crop and plays an important role in the economy of the country. It is grown over 3.11 lakh hectares in India with a production of 19.15 lakh tons in temperate climate, particularly in the western Himalayas. Leading apple-growing states in the country are Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, which together produce about 92% of the total apple production in the country. The apple is cultivated on an area of 1.63 lakh hectares with a production of 15.42 lakh metric tons in J & K State. Heavy yield losses are ~20% inflicted annually due to pests.

The state has been declared as an agroexport zone for apple and walnut; therefore, priorities have to be shifted from quantity to quality and value addition aspects of fruit production. Under the WTO regime, the pesticide residues in an export-oriented crop are to be kept below permissible levels. Intensive cultivation of apple has increased the incidence of insect pests and diseases. The important pests attacking the apple crop in J & K are San Jose scale, Woolly apple aphid, European red mite, gypsy moth, stem borer, shot-hole/pin-hole borer, bark beetles, codling moth (Ladakh), defoliating beetles, tent caterpillars and phytophagous mites. Due to excessive and indiscriminate summer synthetic pesticide sprays during the last two decades, the ERM has developed resistance to various commonly used pesticides. The premature leaf fall in an apple orchard has become an alarming syndrome. The problem is enhanced and further aggravated by Alternaria leaf blotch, particularly under high-temperature and high-humidity regimes, and made fruit trees more vulnerable to the attack of stem borers and bark beetles. In Jammu and Kashmir, where orchardists are still adopting the calendar-based pest control methods, there is a need to use need-based, some advanced, as well as economic practices. With this background, this review is an attempt to introspect into the current status of different pests in apple and strategies adopted for the integrated pest management, constraints and advantages under field conditions. It also incorporates the opportunities/scopes and future approaches in the integrated pest management in temperate fruit-producing zone of India.

Keywords

Apple Biology Fruit production Insect-pests Management Nature of damage Jammu and Kashmir 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akhtar Ali Khan
    • 1
  • Abdul Rouf Wani
    • 1
  • Farooq Ahmad Zaki
    • 1
  • R. K. Nehru
    • 1
  • S. S. Pathania
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of EntomologySher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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