Recent Advances in Physico-chemical and Biological Techniques for the Management of Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

  • Surabhi Zainith
  • Pankaj Chowdhary
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava


Pulp and paper industries are one of the major sources of environmental pollution that discharge enormous amount of wastewaters containing recalcitrant pollutants into the environment. Wastewaters have high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), phenols, lignin and its derivatives. High strength of wastewaters containing dark colour and toxic compounds from pulp paper industries causes serious aquatic and soil pollution. On terrestrial region, pulp and paper mill wastewater at high concentration reduces the soil texture and inhibits seed germination, growth and depletion of vegetation, while in aquatic system, it blocks the photosynthesis and decreases the dissolved oxygen (DO) level which affects both flora and fauna and causes toxicity to aquatic ecosystem. The high pollution load from pulp and paper industrial wastewater gradually increases, and hence, there is a need for adequate treatment to reduce these pollution parameters before final discharge into the environment. Thus, this chapter gives detailed information about sources, characteristics, toxicity and physico-chemical and biological methods for the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastes and wastewaters.


Pulp and paper mill wastewater Recalcitrant pollutants Bioremediation 



The University Grant Commission (UGC) to Ms. Surabhi Zainith for his Ph.D. work from UGC, Government of India (GOI), New Delhi, India, is duly acknowledged.


  1. Abhishek A, Dwivedi A, Neeraj N et al (2015) Comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin from pulp paper wastewater and its metabolites. Appl Water Sci.
  2. Aksu Z (2002) Determination of the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the batch biosorption of nickel(II) ions onto Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 38:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali M, Sreekrishnan TR (2001) Aquatic toxicity from pulp and paper mill effluents: a review. Adv Environ Res 5:175–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amat AM, Arques A, Miranda MA et al (2005) Use of ozone and/or UV in the treatment of effluents from board paper industry. Chemosphere 60(8):1111–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansari PM (2004) Water conservation in pulp and paper, distillery. In: Indo-EU workshop on promoting efficient water use in agro based industries. New Delhi. January 15–16Google Scholar
  6. Asano T, Cotruvo JA (2004) Ground water recharge with recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater: health and regulatory considerations. Water Res 38:1941–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asghar MN, Khan S, Mushtaq S (2008) Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge. J Environ Manag 88:1285–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashrafi O, Yerushalmi L, Haghighat F (2015) Wastewater treatment in the pulp and paper industry: a review of treatment processes and the associated greenhouse gas emission. J Environ Manag 158:146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayed L, Asses N, Chammem N et al (2017) Advanced oxidation process and biological treatments for table olive processing wastewaters: constraints and a novel approach to integrated recycling process: a review. Biodegradation 28:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajpai P (2001) Microbial degradation of pollutants in pulp mill effluents. Adv Appl Microbiol 48:79–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balcioglu IA, Tarlan E, Kiyilcimdan et al (2007) Merits of ozonation and catalytic ozonation pre-treatment in the algal treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. J Environ Manag 85:918–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barapatre A, Jha H (2016) Decolorization and biological treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent by lignin-degrading fungus Aspergillus flavus strain F10. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5(5):19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barton DA, Lee JW, Buckley DB et al (1996) Biotreatment of kraft mill condensates for reuse. In: Proceedings of Tappi minimum effluent mills symposium, Atlanta, pp 270–288Google Scholar
  14. Baruah BK (1997) Effect of paper mill effluent on plankton population of wetland. Environ Ecol 15(4):770–777Google Scholar
  15. Bengtsson S, Werker A, Christensson M et al (2008) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge treating a paper mill wastewater. Bioresour Technol 99:509–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berryman D, Houde F, Deblois C et al (2004) Non phenolic compounds in drinking and surface waters downstream of their textile and pulp and paper effluents: a survey and preliminary assessment of their potential effects on public health and aquatic life. Chemosphere 56(3):247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bharagava RN, Mishra S (2017) Hexavalent chromium reduction potential of Cellulosimicrobium sp. isolated from common effluent treatment industries. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P, Saxena G (2017) Bioremediation an eco-sustainable green technology, its applications and limitations. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buyukkamaci N, Koken E (2010) Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry. Sci Total Environ 408:6070–6078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cecan F, Urban W, Haberl R (1992) Biological and advanced treatment of sulfate pulp bleaching effluents. Water Sci Technol 26:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandra R (2001) Microbial decolourization of pulp mill effluent in presence of nitrogen and phosphorous by activated sludge process. J Environ Biol 22(1):23–27Google Scholar
  22. Chandra R, Abhishek A (2010) Bacterial decolourization of black liquor in axenic and mixed condition and characterization of metabolites. Biodegradation 22:603–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandra R, Chowdhary P (2015) Properties of bacterial lacasses and their application in bioremediation of industrial wastes. Environ Sci Process Impacts 17:326–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chandra R, Singh R (2012) Decolourization and detoxification of rayon grade pulp and paper mill effluent by mixed bacterial culture isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent polluted site. Biochem Eng J 61:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chandra R, Raj A, Purohit HJ et al (2007) Characterization and optimization of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degrading from pulp-paper waste. Chemosphere 67:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chandra R, Raj A, Hj P et al (2009) Reduction of pollutants in pulp and paper mill effluent treated by PCB degrading bacterial strains. Environ Monit Assess 155:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chanworrawoota K, Hunsom M (2012) Treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mill industry by electrochemical methods in membrane reactor. J Environ Manag 113:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chauhan N, Thakur IS (2002) Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent by pseudomonas fluorescens in fixed film bioreactor. Pollut Res 21:429–434Google Scholar
  29. Chen D (2008) Application of membrane separation technology in the fine chemical industry. Energy Conserv Recycl Fine Spec Chem 11:14–17Google Scholar
  30. Chen P, Zheng J, Zhou Y (2009) The presence and future of membrane industry in china. Environ Prot 8:71–74Google Scholar
  31. Choudhary AK, Kumar S, Sharma C (2011) Constructed wetlands: an option for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. EJEAF Che 10(10):3023–3037Google Scholar
  32. Chowdhary P, Yadav A, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN (2017a) Distillery wastewater: a major source of environmental pollution and its biological treatment for environmental safety. In: Singh R, Kumar S (eds) Green technologies and environmental sustainability. Springer International, Cham, pp 409–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chowdhary P, More N, Raj A, Bharagava RN (2017b) Characterization and identification of bacterial pathogens from treated tannery wastewater. Microbiol Res Int 5(3):30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Christmas P (2002) Building materials from deinking plant residues- a sustainable solution. In: COST workshop managing pulp and paper residues, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  35. Ciputra S, Antony A, Phillips R et al (2010) Comparison of treatment options for removal of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter from paper mill effluent. Chemosphere 81:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Costigan SL, Werner J, Ouellet JD et al (2012) Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents. Aquat Toxicol 122–123:44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Covinich LG, Bengoechea DI, Fenoglio RJ et al (2014) Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment in the pulp and paper industry: a review. Am J Environ Eng 4(3):56–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. CPCB (2001) Comprehensive industry document for large pulp and paper industry. COINDS/36/2000–2001Google Scholar
  39. Crini G (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Prog Polym Sci 30:38–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Das CP, Patnaik LN (2000) Removal of lignin by industrial solid wastes. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manag 4(4):156–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dilek FB, Gokcay CF (1994) Treatment of effluents from hemp-based pulp and paper industry: waste characterization and physiochemical treatability. Water Sci Technol 29(9):161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dube M, McLean R, MacLatchy D et al (2000) Reverse osmosis treatment: effects on effluent quality. Pulp Pap Can 101(8):42–45Google Scholar
  43. Dutta SK (1999) Study of the physicochemical properties of effluent of the paper mill that affected the paddy plants. J Environ Pollut 6(2 and 3):181–188Google Scholar
  44. Dutta A, Sarkar S (2015) Sequencing batch reactor for wastewater treatment: recent advances. Curr Pollut Rep 1:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ebrahimi M, Busse N, Kerker S et al (2016) Treatment of the bleaching effluent from sulfite pulp production by membrane filtration. Membranes 6(7):1–15Google Scholar
  46. Ekstrand E, Larsson M, Truong X et al (2013) Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry- a screening of wastewater effluents. Appl Energy 112:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. EPA (2002) Office of compliance sector notebook project profile of the pulp and paper industry. 2nd ed. Washington, NovGoogle Scholar
  48. Eskelinen K, Sarkka H, Kurniawan TA et al (2010) Removal of recalcitrant contaminants from bleaching effluents in pulp and paper mills using ultrasonic irradiation and fenton like oxidation, electrochemical treatment, and/or chemical precipitation: a comparative study. Desalination 255:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fontanier V, Albet J, Baig S et al (2005) Simulation pulp mill wastewater recycling after tertiary treatment. Environ Technol 26:1335–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gadd GM (2009) Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ganjidoust H, Tatsumi K, Yamagishi T et al (1997) Effect of synthetic and natural coagulant on lignin removal from pulp and paper wastewater. Water Sci Technol 35(2–3):291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Garg SK, Tripathi M (2011) Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol.
  53. Gea T, Artola A, Sanchez A (2005) Composting of deinking sludge from the recycled paper manufacturing industry. Bioresour Technol 96:1161–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ghoreishi SM, Haghighi MR (2007) Chromophores removal in pulp and paper mill effluent via hydrogenation-biological batch reactors. Chem Eng J 127:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gonder ZB, Arayici S, Barles H (2011) Advanced treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater by nanofilteration process: optimization of the fouling and rejections. Ind Eng chem Res 51(17):6184–6195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gonzalez LF, Sarria V, Sanchez OF (2010) Degradation of chlorophenols by sequential biological advanced oxidative process using Trametes pubescens and TiO2/UV. Bioresour Technol 101:3493–3499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gubelt G, Lumpe C, Joore L (2000) Towards zero liquid effluents at Niederauer Muhle-the validation of two noval separation technologies. Pap Technol (UK) 41(8):41–48Google Scholar
  58. Gupta A (1997) Pollution load of paper mill effluent and its impact on biological environment. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monit 7(2):101–112Google Scholar
  59. Hermosilla D, Merayo N, Gasco A et al (2014) The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res.
  60. Herney-Ramirez J, Silva AMT, Vicente MA et al (2011) Degradation of acid orange 7 using as laponite-based catalyst in wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation: kinetic study with the Fermi’s equation. Appl Catal B Environ 101:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hewit LM, Kovacs TG, Dude MG et al (2008) Altered reproduction in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents: roles of individual compounds and mill operating conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:682–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holmbom B, Harju L, Lindholm J et al (1994) Effect of a pulp and paper mill on metal concentration in the receiving lake system. Aqua Fenn 24(1):93–110Google Scholar
  63. Hooda R, Nishi K, Bhardwj NK et al (2015) Screening and identification of ligninolytic bacteria for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent. Water Air Soil Pollut 226(305):1–11Google Scholar
  64. Hooda R, Bhardwaj NK, Singh P (2016) Decolourization of pulp and paper mill effluent by indigenous bacterium isolated from sludge. Lignocellulose 5(2):106–117Google Scholar
  65. Howe J, Michael RW (1998) Effects of pulp mill effluent irrigation on the distribution of elements in the profile of an arid region soil. Environ Pollut 105:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Inan H, Dimoglo A, Simsek H et al (2004) Olive oil mill wastewater treatment by means of electro-coagulation. Sep Purif Technol 36(1):23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ince O, Kolukirik M, Cetecioglu Z et al (2007) Methanogenic and sulfate reducing bacterial population levels in a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating pulp and paper industry wastewater using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Water Sci Technol 55(10):183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jahren JS, Rintala JA, Odegaard H (2002) Aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating thermomechanical pulping whitewater under thermophilic conditions. Water Res 36:1067–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kamali M, Khodaparast Z (2015) Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 114:326–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Karam J, Nicell JA (1997) Potential application of enzymes in waste treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 69:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Karrasch B, Parra O, Cid H et al (2006) Effect of pulp and paper mill effluents on the microplankton and microbial self-purification capabilities of the Biobio river, Chile. Sci Total Environ 359(1–3):619–625Google Scholar
  72. Kaviyarasan K (2014) Application of UASB reactor in industrial wastewater treatment- a review. Int J Sci Eng Res 5(1):584–589Google Scholar
  73. Khan NA, Basheer F, Singh D et al (2011) Treatment of paper and pulp mill wastewater by column type sequencing batch reactor. J Ind Res Tech 1(1):12–16Google Scholar
  74. Kouhia M, Holmberg H, Ahtila P (2015) Microalgae- utilizing biorefinery concept for pulp and paper industry:converting secondary streams into value-added products. Algal Res 10:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Krawczyk H, Oinonen P, Jonsson A (2013) Combined membrane filtration and enzymatic treatment for recovery of high molecular mass hemicelluloses from chemithermomechanical pulp process. Water Chem Eng J 225:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kreetachat T, Chaisan O, Vaithanomsat P (2016) Decolorization of pulp and paper mill effluents using wood rotting fungus Fibrodontia sp. RCK783S. Int J Eng Sci Dev 7(5):321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kumar V, Chopra AK (2012) Fertigation effect of distillery effluent on agronomical practices of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). Environ Monit Assess 184:1207–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kumar RR, Subramanian K (2014) Treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent using sequential batch reactor. International Conference on Biological, Civil and Environmental Engineering 39–42Google Scholar
  79. Kumar V, Dhall P, Naithani S et al (2014) Biological approach for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent in sequence batch reactor. Bioremed Biodegrad 5(3):1–10Google Scholar
  80. Kumar S, Haq I, Yadav A, Prakash J, Raj A (2016) Immobilization and biochemical properties of purified xylanase from bacillus amyloliquefaciens sk-3 and its application in kraft pulp biobleaching. J Clin Microbiol Biochem Technol 2(1):26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kumari V, Sharad K, Izharul H, Yadav A, Singh VK, Ali Z, Raj A (2014) Effect of tannery effluent toxicity on seed germination á-amylase activity and early seeding growth of mung bean (Vigna Radiata) seeds. Int J Lat Res Sci Technol 3(4):165–170Google Scholar
  82. Kumari V, Yadav A, Haq I, Kumar S, Bharagava RN, Singh SK, Raj A (2016) Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus. J Environ Manag 183:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leclech P, Chen V, Fane TAG (2006) Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 284:17–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Li Y, Chen YF, Chen P et al (2011) Characterization of a microalga chlorella sp. well adapted to highly concentrated municipal wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 102:5138–5144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Liu T, Hu H, He Z et al (2011) Treatment of poplar alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) effluent with aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 102:7361–7365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lokeshwari N, Keshava J, Sangeetha M et al (2015) Optimization and kinetic studies for the degradation of lignin and chlorophenols by using Rhizopus aarhizus. J Phys Chem Sci 3(1):1–6Google Scholar
  87. Mahmood T, Paice M (2006) Aerated stabilization basin design and operating practices in the Canadian pulp and paper industry. J Environ Eng Sci 5:383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Makris SP, Banerjee S (2002) Fate of resin acids in pulp mills secondary treatment systems. Water Res 36:2878–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Malaviya P, Rathore VS (2007) Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by a novel fungal consortium isolated from polluted soil. Bioresour Technol 98:4647–4651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Malik MM, Kumar P, Seth R et al (2009) Genotoxic effect of paper mill effluent on chromosome of fish Channa punctatus. Curr World Environ 4:353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Malkin VP (2002) Electrochemical methods of treating industrial effluents. Chem Prot Eng 38(9–10):619Google Scholar
  92. Mallevialle J, Odendaal PE, Wiesner MR (1996) Water treatment membrane processes. LyonnaisedesEaux-LdE, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Mandal TN, Bandana TN (1996) Studies on physicochemical and biological characteristics of pulp and paper mill effluents and its impact on human beings. J Freshw Biol 8(4):191–196Google Scholar
  94. Mani S, Bharagava RN (2016) Exposure to crystal violet, its toxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects on environmental and its degradation and detoxification for environmental safety. Rev Environ Conta Toxicol 237:71–104Google Scholar
  95. Mathur RM, Panwar S, Gupta MK et al (2004) Agro-based pulp and paper mills: environmental status, issues and challenges and the role of central pulp and paper research institute. In: Tewari PK (ed) Liquid asset, proceedings of the indo-EU workshop on promoting efficient water use in agro based industries. TERI Press, New Delhi, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  96. Mehta J, Sharma P, Yadav A (2014) Screening and identification of bacterial strains for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluent. Adv Life Sci Health 1(1):34–42Google Scholar
  97. Metcalf, Eddy (revised by Tchobanoglous G, Burton FL, Stensel HD) (2003) Wastewater engineering treatment and reuse, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  98. Methews SL, Pawlak JJ, Grunden AM (2014) Isolation of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus from pulp mill sources with potential to deconstruct pulping waste. Bioresour Technol 164:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Milet GM, Duff SJB (1996) Treatment of kraft condensates in a feedback controlled sequencing batch reactor. Water Sci Technol 38(4–5):263–271Google Scholar
  100. Mishra S, Bharagava RN (2016) Toxic and genotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium in environment and its bioremediation strategies. J Environ Sci Health Part C 34(1):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moreira MT, Feijoo G, Canoval J et al (2003) Semipilot-scale bleaching of kraft pulp with MnP. Wood Sci Technol 37:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Muhamad MH, Abdullah SR, Mohamad AB et al (2013) Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal from recycled paper wastewater in a pilot scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR). J Environ Manag 121:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Munkittrick KR, Servos MR, Carey JH et al (1997) Environmental impacts of pulp and paper wastewater: evidence for a reduction in environmental effects at North American pulp mills since 1992. Water Sci Technol 35:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nagarthnamma R, Bajpai P, Bajpai PK (1999) Studies on decolourization, degradation and detoxification of chlorinated lignin compounds in kraft bleaching effluents by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Process Biochem 34:939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nemerow NL, Dasgupta A (1991) Industrial and hazardous waste management. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Nestmann ER (1985) Detection of genetic activity in effluent from pulp and paper mills: mutagenicity in saccharomyces cerevisiae. In: Zimmerman FK, Taylor-mayor RE (eds) Testing in environmental pollution control. Horwood, London, pp 105–117Google Scholar
  107. O’connor B, Kovacs T, Gibbons S et al (2000) Carbon dioxide in pulp and paper mill effluents from oxygen-activated sludge treatment plants as a potential source of distress and toxicity to fish. Water Qual Res J Can 35(2):189–200Google Scholar
  108. Olsen O (1980) Membrane technology in the pulp and paper industry. Desalination 35:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Owens JW, Swanson SM, Birkholz DA (1994) Environmental monitoring of bleached kraft pulp mill chlorophenolic compounds in a Northern Canadian river system. Chemosphere 29(1):89–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Park C, Lee M, Lee B et al (2007) Biodegradation and biosorption for decolourization of synthetic dyes by Fulani tragic. Biochem Eng J 36:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Peerbhoi Z (2000) Treatability studies of black liquor by UASBR-Phd thesis. University of Roorkee IndiaGoogle Scholar
  112. Perez M, Torrades F, Garcia-Hortal JA et al (2002) Removal of organic contaminants in paper pulp treatment effluents under fenton and photo-fenton conditions. Appl Catal B 36:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pokhrel D, Viraraghavan T (2004) Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater: a review. Sci Total Environ 333:37–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Raj A, Kumar S, Haq I et al (2014) Bioremediation and toxicity reduction in pulp and paper mill effluent by newly isolated ligninolytic Paenibacillus sp. Ecol Eng 71:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ramanna L, Guldhe A, Rawat L et al (2014) The optimization of biomass and yields of Chlorella sorokiniana when using wastewater supplemented with different nitrogen sources. Bioresour Technol 168:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rashed MN (2013) Adsorption technique for the removal of Organic from water and wastewater.
  117. Rohella RS, Choudhary S, Manthan M et al (2001) Removal of colour and turbidity in pulp ans paper mill effluents using polyelectrolytes. Indian J Environ Health 43(4):159–163Google Scholar
  118. Sahoo DK, Gupta R (2005) Evaluation of ligninolytic microorganisms for efficient decolourization of a small pulp and paper mill effluent. Process Biochem 40:1573–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Saiano F, Ciofalo M, Cacciola SO et al (2005) Metal ion adsorption by Phomopsis Sp. biomaterial in laboratory experiments and real wastewater treatments. Water Res 39:2273–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sala M, Gutierrez-Bouzan MC (2012) Electrochemical techniques in textile processes and wastewater treatment. Int J Photoenergy 629103:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sangave PC, Pandit AB (2006) Enhancement in biodegradability of distillery wastewater using enzymatic pretreatment. J Environ Manag 78:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sankaran S, Khanal SK, Jastin N et al (2010) Use of filamentous fungi for wastewater and production of high value fungal byproducts: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 40:400–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saravanan V, Sreekrishnan TR (2005) Bio-physico-chemical treatment for removal of colour from pulp and paper mill effluents. J Sci Ind Res 64:61–64Google Scholar
  124. Saritha V, Maruthi YA, Mukkanti K (2010) Potential fungi for bioremediation of industrial effluents. Bio Resources Com 5(1):8–22Google Scholar
  125. Schnell A, Steel P, Melcer H et al (2000) Enhanced biological treatment of bleached kraft mill effluents: II. Reduction of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in fish. Water Res 34(2):501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sevimli MF (2005) Post-treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater by advanced oxidation processes. Ozone Sci Eng 27:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shawwa AR, Smith DW, Sego DC (2001) Colour and chlorinated organics removal from pulp wastewater using activated petroleum coke. Water Res 35(3):745–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sinclair WF (1990) Controlling pollution from Canadian pulp and paper manufactures: a federal perspective. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  129. Singh S (2004) An overview of Indian agro-based paper mills. In: Tewari PK (ed) Liquid asset, proceedings of the indo-EU workshop on promoting efficient water use in agro based industries. TERI Press, New Delhi, pp 31–33Google Scholar
  130. Singh RS, Marwaha SS, Khanna PK (1996) Characteristics of pulp and paper mill effluents. J Ind Pollut Control 12(2):163–172Google Scholar
  131. Singh C, Chowdhary P, Singh JS, Chandra R (2016) Pulp and paper mill wastewater and coliform as health hazards: a review. Microbiol Res Int 4(3):28–39Google Scholar
  132. Singhal A, Thakur IS (2009a) Decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Emericella nidulans. Biochem Eng J 171:619–625Google Scholar
  133. Singhal A, Thakur IS (2009b) Decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Cryptococcus sp.
  134. Singhal A, Kumar PJ, Thakur IS (2015) Biosorption of pulp and paper mill effluent by Emericella nidulans: isotherms, kinetics and mechanism. Dealination Water Treat 1–16Google Scholar
  135. Skipperud L, Salbu B, Hagebo E (1998) Speciation of trace elements in discharges from the pulp industry. Sci Total Environ 217:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Soloman PA, Basha CA, Velan M et al (2009) Augmentation of biodegradability of pulp and paper industry wastewater by electrochemical pre-treatment and optimization by RSM. Sep Purif Technol 69:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sumathi S, Hung YT (2006) Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastes Waste treatment in the process industries. Wang LK, Hung YT, Lo HH et al 453–497. Taylor & Francis. 0-8493-7233-X. Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  138. Tarlan E, Dilek FB, Yetis U (2002) Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater. Bioresour Technol 84:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thompson G, Swain J, Kay M et al (2001) The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. Bioresour Technol 77(3):275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tiku DK, Kumar A, Chaturvedi R et al (2010) Holistic bioremediation of pulp mill effluents autochthonous bacteria. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 64:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tong Z, Wada S, Takao Y et al (1999) Treatment of bleaching wastewater from pulp-paper plants in China using enzymes and coagulants. J Environ Sci 11(4):480–484Google Scholar
  142. Tuomela M, Vikman M, Hatakka A et al (2000) Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: a review. Bioresour Technol 72:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tyagi SI, Kumar V2, Singh J1 (2014) Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by dominant aboriginal microbes and their consortium. Int J Environ Res 8(3):561–568Google Scholar
  144. Ugurlu M, Gurses A, Dogar C et al (2008) The removal of lignin and phenol from paper mill effluents by electrocoagulation. J Environ Manag 87:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2004) Constructed treatment wetlands. Office of water 843-F-03-013Google Scholar
  146. Usha MT, Chandra TS, Sarada R et al (2016) Removal of nutrients and organic pollution load from pulp and paper mill effluent by microalgae in outdoor open pond. Bioresour Technol 214:856–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wang J, Chen Y, Wang Y et al (2011) Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation design and response surface methodology. Water Res 45:5633–5640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Waye A, Annal M, Tang A et al (2014) Canadian boreal pulp and paper feed stocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain. Sci Total Environ 468–469:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Webb L (1985) An investigation into the occurrence of sewage fungus in rivers containing paper mill effluents. Removal of sewage fungus nutrients. Water Res 19:961–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wells GF, Park H, Eggleston B et al (2011) Fine-scale bacterial community dynamics and the taxa-time relationship with in a full-scale activate sludge bioreactor. Water Res 45:5476–5488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wenta B, Hartmen B (2002) Dissolved air flotation system improves wastewater treatment at Glatfelter. Pulp Pap 76(3):43–47Google Scholar
  152. Xilei D, Tingzhi L, Weijiang D et al (2010) Adsorption and coagulation tertiary treatment of pulp and paper mills wastewater. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (ICBBE)Google Scholar
  153. Yang Q, Angly FE, Wang Z et al (2011) Wastewater treatment systems harbor specific and diverse yeast communities. Biochem Eng J 58–59:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Yen NT, Oanh NTK, Reutergard LB et al (1996) An integrated waste survey and environmental effects of COGIDO, a bleached pulp and paper mill in Vietnam on the receiving water body. Global Environ Biotechnol 66:349–364Google Scholar
  155. Zwain HM, Hassan SR, Zaman NQ et al (2013) The startup performance of modified anaerobic baffled reactor (MABR) for the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 1:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surabhi Zainith
    • 1
  • Pankaj Chowdhary
    • 1
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations